Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Sport Psychology Attitudes—Revised Form: A Multiple Group Investigation

in The Sport Psychologist
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  • 1 University of North Texas
  • | 2 Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany
  • | 3 University of Strathclyde, Scotland
  • | 4 University of Cincinnati
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Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to develop a revised form of the Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ; Martin, Wrisberg, Beitel, & Lounsbury, 1997). The 50-item ATSSPCQ was administered to 533 athletes (M = 18.03 ± 2.71). Exploratory alpha factor analysis with varimax rotation produced four factors: (a) stigma tolerance, (b) confidence in sport psychology consultation, (c) personal openness, and (d) cultural preference. The new questionnaire, the Sport Psychology Attitudes - Revised form (SPA-R), was then administered to 379 United States, 234 United Kingdom, and 443 German athletes (M = 20.37 ± 5.13). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the factorial validity of the four-factor model for the SPA-R for male and female athletes, late adolescent

Scott B. Martin is with the Department of Kinesiology, Health Promotion, and Recreation at the University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203-6857. E-mail: <>. Michael Kellmann is with the Faculty of Sport Science at the Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany; David Lavallee is with the Scottish School of Sport Studies, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland; Stephen J. Page is with the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267.

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