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Little research exists to identify optimal coaching behaviors and factors that influence the effectiveness of particular behaviors. The present study tested 484 athletes in order to determine sub-scales on the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). The CBQ measures athletes’ perceptions of coaching behaviors and evaluates their effectiveness in helping athletes play better and maintain optimal mental states and focus. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the two-factor model (negative activation, supportiveness/emotional composure) derived from an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Correlational analyses indicated that athletes with higher anxiety and lower self-confidence and compatibility with the coach were more likely to negatively evaluate coaching behaviors. The results support and expand on Smoll and Smith’s (1989) model of leadership behaviors in sport.
Jean Williams is with the Department of Psychology at the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Laura Kenow is with the Dept. of Health, Human Performance and Athletics at Linfield College, McMinnville, OR. Gerald Jerome is with the Dept. of Kinesiology at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL. Tracie Rogers is with the Dept. of Kinesiology at Arizona State University, Tempe. Tessa Sartain and Greg Darland were students in the Dept. of Psychology at the University of Arizona, Tucson.