Mind Over Matter: The Development of the Mental Toughness Scale (MTS)

in The Sport Psychologist

Click name to view affiliation

Leilani MadrigalUniversity of North Carolina at Greensboro

Search for other papers by Leilani Madrigal in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sharon HamillCalifornia State University San Marcos

Search for other papers by Sharon Hamill in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Diane L. GillUniversity of North Carolina at Greensboro

Search for other papers by Diane L. Gill in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Mental Toughness (MT), which refers to an inner focus and commitment to rise above challenges when facing adversity, is viewed as one of the most important psychological attributes in determining success in sport. However, there is little consensus on key components of MT, and existing measures vary greatly while focusing on elite athletes. The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of MT for use with college athletes. Collegiate and noncollegiate athletes (N = 271) completed the original 54-item Mental Toughness Scale (MTS) in study 1. Factor analysis (PCA) results reduced the scale to an 11-item scale, with good reliability and validity as demonstrated by its positive correlations with self-esteem and flow. A second study of college basketball players (N = 143) was conducted to establish the psychometric properties of the MTS. Study 2 demonstrated convergent, divergent and criterion validity through correlations with related measures, and a CFA provided moderate support for the MTS as a one-dimensional measure of mental toughness in sport.

Madrigal and Gill are with the Dept. of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC. Hamill is with the Dept. of Psychology, California State University San Marcos, San Marcos, CA.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 3683 1260 203
Full Text Views 230 53 7
PDF Downloads 251 63 5