Group Norms in Youth Sport: Role of Personal and Social Factors

in The Sport Psychologist
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  • 1 Nipissing University
  • | 2 California State University Fullerton
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The purpose of this study was to investigate youth athletes’ perceptions of group norms for competition, practice, and social setting contexts in relation to personal and social factors. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of the personal and situation factors on perceptions of group norms. Participants included 424 athletes from 35 high school sport teams who completed a survey assessing team norms in competition, practice, and social settings. Multilevel analysis results revealed differences in group norms by gender as well as gender by team tenure and gender by sport type interactions. Female teams held higher perceptions of norms for competition, practice, and social settings than male teams. Interactions between gender and team tenure and gender and sport type revealed significant differences in practice norms. No differences were found in norms by group size. The findings suggest that examining the characteristics of the team members (i.e., gender, team tenure) and team (i.e., type of sport) may enhance our understanding of group norms in a youth sport setting.

Bruner, Carreau, and Penney are with the School of Physical and Health Education, Nipissing University, Canada. Wilson is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, CA.

Address author correspondence to Mark W. Bruner at
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