Say What? An Analysis of Spontaneous Self-Talk Categorization

in The Sport Psychologist

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Judy L. Van RaalteSpringfield College

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Allen E. CorneliusSpringfield College

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Maureen K. CopeskeySpringfield College

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Britton W. BrewerSpringfield College

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Research exploring spontaneously generated self-talk has involved recording performers’ self-talk categorized by researchers. The actor-observer bias, suggests that actors (performers) and observers (researchers) may perceive the same situation (e.g., self-talk) differently. The purpose of this study was to explore the actor-observer bias and validity of self-talk categorization. College students’ (n = 30) spontaneous self-talk was audio recorded during a dart throwing task. Participants then listened to and categorized their self-talk. Three independent researchers reviewed written transcripts and categorized the self-talk. Another three researchers who had not read the transcripts listened to audio recordings and categorized the same self-talk. Results confirmed actor-observer bias predictions. Spontaneous self-talk ratings made by participants were similar to but distinct from those made by researchers reading transcripts or listening to self-talk audio recordings. These results suggest that participant categorization of spontaneous self-talk may be a valid strategy to enhance understanding of self-talk used in competitive settings.

The authors are with the Dept. of Psychology, Springfield College, Springfield, MA.

Address author correspondence to Judy Van Raalte at jvanraal@springfieldcollege.edu.
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