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To enhance the specificity of psychological skills training (PST) interventions, the purpose of the current study was to examine stage of change and gender differences in the combination of transtheoretical model (TTM) constructs (i.e., decisional balance pros and cons, self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change) among collegiate student-athletes. Participants (N = 602) completed all TTM measures, and a factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of stage of change and gender on the combination of TTM constructs. No significant interaction effect was identified, yet significant main effects of stage of change and gender were identified. Post hoc tests revealed unique linear combinations of decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change for each stage of change contrast. Taken together, study findings may be used to enhance the specificity of behavior change interventions when delivering PST programs to both male and female collegiate student-athletes.
Gnacinski is with the College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, Drake University, Des Moines, IA. Massey is with the College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. Hess is with the College of Liberal Arts, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA. Nai, Arvinen-Barrow, and Meyer are with the College of Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI.