Self-Talk Theory, Research, and Applications: Some Personal Reflections

in The Sport Psychologist
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $68.00

1 year subscription

USD  $90.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $129.00

2 year subscription

USD  $168.00

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Weinberg is with Dept. of Kinesiology and Health, Phillips Hall, Miami University, Oxford, OH.

Address author correspondence to Robert Weinberg at weinber@miamioh.edu.
  • Abdoli, B., Hardy, J., Riyahi, J.F., & Farsi, A. (2018). A closer look at how self-talk influences skilled basketball performance. The Sport Psychologist, 32(1). doi:10.1123/tsp.2016-0162

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Adult participation in aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activities– United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62, 326–330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

  • Dickens, Y.L., Van Raalte, J., & Hurlburt, R.T. (2018). On investigating self-talk: A descriptive experience sampling study of inner experience during golf performance. The Sport Psychologist, 32(1) doi:10.1123/tsp.2016-0073

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dishman, R., & Buckworth, J. (1997). Adherence to physical activity. In W.P. Morgan (Ed.), Physical activity and mental health (pp. 63–80). Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galanis, E., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Comoutos, A., Charachousi, F., & Sanchez, X. (2018). From the lab to field: Effects of self-talk on task performance under distracting conditions. The Sport Psychologist 32(1). doi:10.1123/tsp.2017-0017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardy, J., Begley, K., & Blanchfield, A. (2015). It’s good but it’s not right: Instructional self-talk and skilled performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 27, 132–139. doi:10.1080/10413200.2014.959624

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardy, J., Hall, C.R., & Alexander, M.R. (2001). Exploring self-talk and affective states in sport. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19, 469–475. PubMed doi:10.1080/026404101750238926

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardy, J., Roberts, R., & Hardy, L. (2009). Awareness and motivation to change negative self-talk. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 435–450. doi:10.1123/tsp.23.4.435

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Zourbanos, N., Galanis, E., & Theodorakis, Y. (2011). Self-talk and sport performance: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 348–356. doi:10.1177/1745691611413136

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latinjak, A.T. (2018). Goal-directed, spontaneous and stimulus-independent thoughts and mindwandering in a competitive context. The Sport Psychologist, 32(1). doi:10.1123/tsp.2016-0044

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latinjak, A.T., Maso, M., & Comoutos, N. (2018). Goal-directed self-talk used during technical skill acquisition: The case of novice Ultimate Frisbee players. The Sport Psychologist, 32(1). doi:10.1123/tsp.2017-0047

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Locke, E., & Latham, G. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35 year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705–717. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.57.9.705

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCormick, A., Meijen, C., & Marcora, S. (2018). Effects of a motivational self-talk intervention for endurance athletes completing an ultramarathon. The Sport Psychologist, 32(1). doi:10.1123/tsp.2017-0018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nisbett, R., & Wilson, T. (1977). Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231–259. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.84.3.231

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peters, H., & Williams, J. (2006). Moving cultural background to the foreground: An investigation of self-talk, performance and persistence following feedback. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 18, 240–253. doi:10.1080/10413200600830315

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2008). Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prochaska, J., DiClemente, C., & Norcross, C. (1992). In search of how people change. American Psychologist, 47, 1102–1114. PubMed doi:10.1037/0003-066X.47.9.1102

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roese, N., Sanna, I., & Galinsky, A. (2005). The mechanics of imagination: Automaticity and control in counterfactual thinking. In R. Hassin, J. Uleman, & J. Baugh (Eds.), The new unconscious (pp. 138–170). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2006). Self-regulation and the problem of human autonomy: Does psychology need choice, self-determination, and will? Journal of Personality, 74, 1557–1586. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00420.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stanley, D., Cumming, J., Standage, M., & Duda, J. (2012). Images of exercising: Exploring the links between exercise imagery use, autonomous and controlled motivation to exercise, and exercise intention and behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 133–141. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.10.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tod, D., Hardy, J., & Oliver, E. (2011). Effects of self-talk: A systematic review. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, 666–687. doi:10.1123/jsep.33.5.666

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Dyke, E., Van Raalte, J., Mullin, E.M., & Brewer, B.W. (2018). Self-talk and competitive balance beam performance. The Sport Psychologist, 32(1). doi:10.1123/tsp.2016-0085

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Raalte, J., Cornelius, A., Mullin, E., Brewer, B.W., Van Dyke, E., Johnson, A.J., & Iwatsuki, T. (2018). I will use declarative self-talk… or will I? Replication, extension, and meta-analyses. The Sport Psychologist, 32(1). doi:10.1123/tsp.2016-0088

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Raalte, J.L., Vincent, A., & Brewer, B.W. (2016). Self-talk: Review and sport specific model. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 22, 139–148. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.08.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wegner, D.M. (1997a). When the antidote is the poison: Ironic mental control processes. Psychological Science, 8, 148–150. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00399.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wegner, D.M. (1997b). Why the mind wanders. In J.D. Cohen & J. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific approaches to consciousness (pp. 295–315). Hiillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wegner, D.M., Ansfield, M., & Pilloff, D. (1998). The putt and the pendulum: Ironic effects of the mental control of action. Psychological Sciences, 9, 196–199. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00037

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weinberg, R. (2008). Does imagery work? Effects on performance and mental skills. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Exercise, 3, 1–20. doi:10.2202/1932-0191.1025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodman, T., Barlow, M., & Gorgulu, R. (2015). Don’t miss, don’t miss, d’oh! Performance when anxious suffers specifically where least desired. The Sport Psychologist, 29, 213–223. doi:10.1123/tsp.2014-0114

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zourbanos, N., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Bardas, D., & Theodorakis, Y. (2013). The effects of self-talk on dominant and non-dominant arm performance on a handball task in primary physical education students. The Sport Psychologist, 27, 171–176. doi:10.1123/tsp.27.2.171

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 987 987 83
Full Text Views 66 66 3
PDF Downloads 38 38 1