Athlete Perceptions of Coaching Effectiveness and Athlete-Level Outcomes in Team and Individual Sports: A Cross-Cultural Investigation

in The Sport Psychologist
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $68.00

1 year subscription

USD $90.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $129.00

2 year subscription

USD $168.00

This research aimed to investigate whether athletes’ perceptions of their coach’s effectiveness on dimensions of coaching efficacy (i.e., motivation, technique, character building) predicted indicators of their competence, confidence, connection, and character in athletes from the UK and Malaysia. Athletes from team (volleyball, UK n = 46, Malaysia n = 49; hockey, UK n = 34, Malaysia n = 47; and basketball, UK n = 50, Malaysia n = 50) and individual (squash, UK n = 47, Malaysia n = 44; table tennis, UK n = 48, Malaysia n = 47; and golf, UK n = 44, Malaysia n = 47) sports completed questionnaires assessing the study variables. Multiple-regression analyses controlling for athletes’ sex, sport experience, and sport type showed in both samples that perceived motivation effectiveness positively predicted athletes’ connection and sport confidence, perceived technique effectiveness positively predicted their sport competence, and perceived character-building effectiveness positively predicted their moral identity. Thus, athletes’ perceptions of their coach may have important implications for athletes’ sport experiences in team and individual sports even in divergent cultures. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for the coaching efficacy model and the athlete-level outcomes resulting from effective coaching.

The authors are with the School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom.

Mohd Kassim (afk80uitm@gmail.com) is corresponding author.
The Sport Psychologist
Article Sections
References
  • AquinoK. & ReedA.2nd. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 8314231440. PubMed doi:10.1037/0022-3514.83.6.1423

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AquinoK.ReedA.2ndThauS. & FreemanD. (2007). A grotesque and dark beauty: How moral identity and mechanisms of moral disengagement influence cognitive and emotional reactions to war. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43385392. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BanduraA. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W H Freeman & Co.

  • BredemeierB.J. & ShieldsD.L. (1996). Moral development and children’s sport. In Children and youth sport: A biopsychosocial perspective (pp. 381404). Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BoardleyI.D. (2018). Coaching efficacy research: learning from the past and looking to the future. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology11(1) 214237.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BoardleyI.D.JacksonB. & SimmonsA. (2015). Changes in task self-efficacy and emotion across competitive performances in golf. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 37(4) 393409. doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0331

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BoardleyI.D. & KavussanuM. (2009). The influence of social variables and moral disengagement on prosocial and antisocial behaviors in field hockey and netball. Journal of Sports Sciences 27843854. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410902887283

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BoardleyI.D.KavussanuM. & RingC. (2008). Athletes’ perceptions of coaching effectiveness and athlete-related outcome in rugby union: An investigation based on the coaching efficacy model. The Sport Psychologist 22269287. doi:10.1123/tsp.22.3.269

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BroodrykR.Van den BergP.H.KrugerA. & EllisS.M. (2014).Comparing club level rugby coaches and players' perceptions of coaching effectiveness: Sport psychology. African Journal for Physical Health Education Recreation and Dance 20(22) 780792.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CarlsonM.D. & MorrisonR.S. (2009). Study design, precision, and validity in observational studies. Journal of Palliative Medicine 12(1) 7782. PubMed doi:10.1089/jpm.2008.9690

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Causgrove DunnJ.DunnJ.G.H. & BayduzaA. (2007). Perceived athletic competence, sociometric status, and loneliness in elementary school children. Journal of Sport Behavior 30(3) 249269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CohenJ. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin 112155159. PubMed doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155

  • CôtéJ.BrunerM.W.EricksonK.StrachanL. & Fraser-ThomasJ. (2010). Athlete development and coaching. In J. Lyle & C. Cushion (Eds.) Sport coaching: Professionalism and practice. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CôtéJ. & GilbertW. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International Journal of Sport Science & Coaching 4(3) 307323. doi:10.1260/174795409789623892

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoxR.H.MartensM.P. & RussellW.D. (2003). Measuring anxiety in athletics: The revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 25(4) 519533. doi:10.1123/jsep.25.4.519

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CronbachL.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of test. Psychometrika 16297334. doi:10.1007/BF02310555

  • DirksM.A.TreatT.A. & WeersingV.R. (2007). Integrating theoretical, measurement, and intervention models of youth social competence. Clinical Psychology Review 27327347. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2006.11.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FalcãoW.R.BloomG.A. & GilbertW.D. (2012). Coaches’ perceptions of a coach training program designed to promote youth developmental outcomes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 24(4) 429444.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FeltzD.L.ChaseM.A.MoritzS.E. & SullivanP.J. (1999). A conceptual model of coaching efficacy: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Educational Psychology 91(4) 765776. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.91.4.765

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FeltzD.L.ShortS.E. & SullivanP.J. (2008). Self-efficacy in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • HornT.S. (2008). Coaching effectiveness in the sports domain. In T.S. Horn (Ed.) Advances in sport psychology (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JowettS. & CockerillI. (2002). Incompatibility in the coach–athlete relationship. In I. Cockerill (Ed.) Solutions in sport psychology. London, UK: Thompson Learning.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JowettS. & MeekG.A. (2000). The coach–athlete relationship in married couples: An exploratory content analysis. The Sport Psychologist 14(2) 157175. doi:10.1123/tsp.14.2.157

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JowettS. & NtoumanisN. (2004). The Coach Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q): Development and initial validation. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport 14(4) 245257. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2003.00338.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KavussanuM.BoardleyI.D.JutkiewiczN.VincentS. & RingC. (2008). Coaching efficacy and coaching effectiveness: Examining their predictors and comparing coaches’ and athletes’ reports. The Sport Psychologist 22(4) 383404. doi:10.1123/tsp.22.4.383

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KenowJ. & WilliamsJ.M. (1999). Coach–athlete compatibility and athletes’ perception of coaching behaviors. Journal of Sport Behavior 22251259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KraneV. & BairdS.M. (2005). Using ethnography in applied sport psychology. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 17(2) 87107. doi:10.1080/10413200590932371

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LundqvistC. & HassménP. (2005). Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2): Evaluating the Swedish version by confirmatory factor analyses. Journal of Sports Sciences 23(7) 727736. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640410400021484

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MyersN.D.FeltzD.L.MaierK.S.WolfeE.W. & ReckaseM.D. (2006). Athletes’ evaluations of their head coach’s coaching competency. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 77111121. PubMed doi:10.1080/02701367.2006.10599337

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Coaching Foundation. (2008). The UK coaching framework. Leeds, UK: Coachwise Business Solutions.

  • National Sport Policy Ministry of Youth and Sport (Malaysia). (2009). The basic part of strategic planning. www.kbs.gov.my

  • NunallyJ.C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

  • PaulhusD.L. & VazireS. (2007). The self-report method. In R.W. RobinsR.C. Fraley & R.F. Krueger (Eds.) Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 224239). London, UK: The Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ReedA.2nd & AquinoK.F. (2003). Moral identity and the expanding circle of moral regard toward out-groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 8412701286. PubMed doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.6.1270

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ReynoldsW.M. (1982). Development of reliable and valid short forms of the Marlowe‐Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology 38(1) 119125. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(198201)38:1<119::AID-JCLP2270380118>3.0.CO;2-I

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SenkoC. & HarackiewiczJ.M. (2002). Performance goal: The moderating roles of content and achievement orientation. Journal of Experimental Sport Psychology 38603610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShortS.E. & ShortM.W. (2004). Coaches’ assessment of their coaching efficacy compared to athletes’ perceptions. Perceptual and Motor Skills 99(2) 729736.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TerryP.C. & MunroA. (2008). Psychometric re-evaluation of the revised version of the competitive state anxiety inventory-2. Proceedings of the 43rd Australian Psychological Society Annual Conference (APS 2008)Australian Psychology SocietyHobart, Tasmania.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vargas-TonsingT.M.MyersN.D. & FeltzD.L. (2004). Coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions of efficacy-enhancing techniques. The Sport Psychologist 18(4) 397414. doi:10.1123/tsp.18.4.397

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vargas-TonsingT.M.WarnersA.L. & FeltzD.L. (2003). The predictability of coaching efficacy on team efficacy and player efficacy in volleyball. Journal of Sport Behavior 26(4) 396407.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VealeyR.S. (1986). Conceptualization of sport-confidence and competitive orientation: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Sport Psychology8(3) 221246. doi:10.1123/jsp.8.3.221

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VierimaaM.EricsonK.CoteJ. & GilbertW. (2012). Positive youth development: A measurement framework for sport. International Journal of Sport Science and Coaching 7601614. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.7.3.601

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 103 103 27
Full Text Views 48 48 10
PDF Downloads 25 25 4
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar