Successful High-Performance Ice Hockey Coaches’ Intermission Routines and Situational Factors That Guide Implementation

in The Sport Psychologist
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $68.00

1 year subscription

USD $90.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $129.00

2 year subscription

USD $168.00

Competitions in many team sports include short breaks (e.g., intermissions, halftime) where coaches have a unique opportunity to make tactical adjustments and communicate with athletes as a group. Although these breaks are significant coaching moments, very little is known about what successful coaches do during this time. The purpose of this study was to examine intermission routines and knowledge of highly experienced and successful National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) ice hockey coaches. A thematic analysis was used to analyze semistructured and stimulated-recall interview data. Results revealed that coaching during intermissions was a continuous process influenced by the coaches’ history and personal characteristics. Drawing on these factors, the coaches created an intermission routine that guided them as they analyzed unpredictable situational factors such as their team’s performance and the athletes’ emotional state. Overall, the results offer a rare glimpse into the intermission strategies of successful coaches in a high-performance setting.

Allain and Bloom are with the Dept. of Kinesiology & Physical Education, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. Gilbert is with the Dept. of Kinesiology, California State University, Fresno, Fresno, CA.

Bloom (gordon.bloom@mcgill.ca) is corresponding author.
The Sport Psychologist
Article Sections
References
  • BaxterP. & JackS. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. Qualitative Report 13544559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BeckerA.J. (2009). It’s not what they do, it’s how they do it: Athlete experiences of great coaching. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 493119. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.4.1.93

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BloomG.A. (1996). Competition. In J.H. Salmela (Ed.) Great job coach! Getting the edge from proven winners (pp. 139178). Ottawa, ON, Canada: Potentium.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BloomG.A.Durand-BushN. & SalmelaJ.H. (1997). Pre- and postcompetition routines of expert coaches of team sports. The Sport Psychologist 11127141. doi:10.1123/tsp.11.2.127

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BloomG.A.FalcãoW.R. & CaronJ.G. (2014). Coaching high performance athletes: Implications for coach training. In A.R. GomesR. Resende & A. Albuquerque (Eds.) Positive human functioning from a multidimensional perspective: Promoting high performance (Vol. 3 pp. 107132). New York, NY: Nova Science.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BraunV. & ClarkeV. (2013). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • BreakeyC.JonesM.CunninghamC.T. & HoltN. (2009). Female athletes’ perceptions of a coach’s speeches. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 4489504. doi:10.1260/174795409790291376

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CarpentierJ. & MageauG.A. (2013). When change-oriented feedback enhances motivation, well-being and performance: A look at autonomy-supportive feedback in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 14423435. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChanJ.T. & MallettC.J. (2011). The value of emotional intelligence for high performance coaching. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 6315328. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.6.3.315

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CôtéJ. & GilbertW. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 4307323. doi:10.1260/174795409789623892

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CreswellJ.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  • DebanneT. & FontayneP. (2009). A study of a successful experienced elite handball coach’s cognitive processes in competition situations. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 4116. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.4.1.1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DebanneT.FontayneP. & BourboussonJ. (2014). Professional handball coaches management of players’ situated understanding during official games. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 15596604. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.06.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ElberseA. & DyeT. (2012). Manchester United. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School.

  • GilbertW.D. & TrudelP. (2000). Validation of the coaching model (CM) in a team sport context. International Sports Journal 4120128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GilbertW.D. & TrudelP. (2004). Analysis of coaching science research published from 1970–2001. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 75388399. PubMed ID: 15673038 doi:10.1080/02701367.2004.10609172

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GilbertW.D.TrudelP. & HaughianL.P. (1999). Interactive decision making factors considered by coaches of youth ice hockey during games. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 18290311. doi:10.1123/jtpe.18.3.290

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GouldD.GreenleafC.GuinanD.DieffenbachK. & McCannS. (2001). Pursuing performance excellence: Lessons learned from Olympic athletes and coaches. Journal of Excellence 42143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GouldD.GuinanD.GreenleafC. & ChungY. (2002). A survey of U.S. Olympic coaches: Variables perceived to have influenced athlete performances and coach effectiveness. The Sport Psychologist 16229250. doi:10.1123/tsp.16.3.229

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GouldD. & MaynardI. (2009). Psychological preparation for the Olympic Games. Journal of Sport Sciences 2713931408. doi:10.1080/02640410903081845

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HarveyS.LyleJ.W.B. & MuirB. (2015). Naturalistic decision making in high performance team sport coaching. International Sport Coaching Journal 2152168. doi:10.1123/iscj.2014-0118

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeY.H. & ChelladuraiP. (2016). Affectivity, emotional labor, emotional exhaustion, and emotional intelligence in coaching. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 28170184. doi:10.1080/10413200.2015.1092481

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LyleJ. (2003). Stimulated recall: A report on its use in naturalistic research. British Educational Research Journal 29861878. doi:10.1080/0141192032000137349

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MageauG.A. & VallerandR.J. (2003). The coach-athlete relationship: A motivational model. Journal of Sports Sciences 21883904. PubMed ID: 14626368 doi:10.1080/0264041031000140374

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MallettC.J.RynneS.B. & BillettS. (2016). Valued learning experiences of early career and experienced high-performance coaches. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 2189104. doi:10.1080/17408989.2014.892062

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MouchetA.HarveyS. & LightR. (2014). A study on in-match rugby coaches’ communications with players: A holistic approach. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy 19320336. doi:10.1080/17408989.2012.761683

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OlusogaP.MaynardI.HayesK. & ButtJ. (2012). Coaching under pressure: A study of Olympic coaches. Journal of Sport Sciences 30229239. doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.639384

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RathwellS.BloomG.A. & LougheadT.M. (2014). Head coaches’ perceptions on the roles, selection, and development of the assistant coach. International Sport Coaching Journal 1516. doi:10.1123/iscj.2013-0008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RitchieD. & AllenJ. (2015). ‘Let them get on with it’: Coaches’ perceptions of their roles and coaching practices during Olympic and Paralympic Games. International Sport Coaching Journal 2108124. doi:10.1123/iscj.2014-0092

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SaloveyP. & MayerJ.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination Cognition and Personality 9185211. doi:10.2190/DUGG-P24E-52WK-6CDG

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SinotteC.A.BloomG.A. & CaronJ.G. (2015). Roles, responsibilities and relationships of fulltime university assistant coaches. Sports Coaching Review 499114. doi:10.1080/21640629.2016.1158542

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmithB. & McGannonK.R. (2018). Developing rigor in qualitative research: Problems and opportunities within sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology11(1) 101–121. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2017.1317357

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmithM. & CushionC.J. (2006). An investigation of the in-game behaviors of professional, top-level youth soccer coaches. Journal of Sports Sciences 24355366. PubMed ID: 16492600 doi:10.1080/02640410500131944

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SparkesA.C. & SmithB. (2014). Qualitative research methods in sport exercise and health. New York, NY: Routledge.

  • ValléeC.N. & BloomG.A. (2005). Building a successful university sport program: Key and common elements of expert coaches. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 17179196. doi:10.1080/10413200591010021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ValléeC.N. & BloomG.A. (2016). Four keys to building a championship culture. International Sports Coaching Journal 3170177. doi:10.1123/iscj.2016-0010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VargasT.M. & ShortS.E. (2011). Athletes’ perceptions of the psychological, emotional, and performance effects of coaches’ pre-game speeches. International Journal of Coaching Science 52743.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vargas-TonsingT.M. (2009). An exploratory examination of the effects of coaches’ pre-game speeches on athletes’ perceptions of self-efficacy and emotion. Journal of Sport Behavior 3292111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vargas-TonsingT.M. & BartholomewJ.B. (2006). An exploratory study of the effects of pregame speeches on team efficacy beliefs. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 36918933. doi:10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00049.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vargas-TonsingT.M. & GuanJ. (2007). Athletes’ preferences for informational and emotional pre-game speech content. International Journal of Sports Sciences and Coaching 2171180. doi:10.1260/174795407781394338

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 72 72 18
Full Text Views 9 9 2
PDF Downloads 7 7 1
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar