Examining the Effects of an Interspersed Biofeedback Training Intervention on Physiological Indices

in The Sport Psychologist
View More View Less
  • 1 University of Western Ontario
  • 2 University of Leeds
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $69.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $92.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $131.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $175.00

The study aimed to determine whether athletes who practice biofeedback are able to self-regulate by reaching resonance frequency and gaining physiological control quicker than if practice time integrates imagery or a rest period. Intervention effectiveness (e.g., intervention length, time spent training) was also explored. Twenty-seven university athletes were assigned to one of three groups: (a) biofeedback (i.e., continuous training), (b) biofeedback/imagery (i.e., interspersed with imagery), and (c) biofeedback/rest (i.e., interspersed with a rest period). Five biofeedback sessions training respiration rate, heart rate variability, and skin conductance were conducted. A repeated-measure analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between groups over time (p ≤ .05) for respiration rate, heart rate variability, and skin conductance, indicating that resonance frequency and physiological control was regained following imagery or a rest period. Postmanipulation check data found intervention length and training time to be sufficient. Combining imagery with biofeedback may optimize management of psychophysiological processes.

Nelson Ferguson is with the Dept. of Geography, and Hall, School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. Divine is with the Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Nelson Ferguson (knelso42@uwo.ca) is corresponding author.
  • Bar-Eli , M. , & Blumenstein , B. (2004). Performance enhancement in swimming: The effect of mental training with biofeedback. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7(4), 454464. PubMed ID: 15712502 doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(04)80264-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bar-Eli , M. , Dreshman , R. , Blumenstein , B. , & Weinstein , Y. (2002). The effect of mental training with biofeedback on the performance of young swimmers. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 51(4), 567581. doi:10.1111/1464-0597.00108

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumenstein , B. , Bar-Eli , M. , & Tenenbaum , G. (1997). A five-step approach to mental training incorporating biofeedback. The Sport Psychologist, 11(4), 440453. doi:10.1123/tsp.11.4.440

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumenstein , B. , Bar-Eli , M. , & Tenenbaum , G. (2002). Brain and body in sport and exercise: Biofeedback applications in performance enhancement. New York, NY: John Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blumenstein , B. , & Orbach , I. (2014). Biofeedback from sport and performance enhancement. Oxford Handbooks Online. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935291.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199935291-e-001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callow , N. , Hardy , L. , & Hall , C.R. (2001). The effects of a motivational general-mastery imagery intervention on the sport confidence of high-level badminton players. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72(4), 389400. PubMed ID: 11770788 doi:10.1080/02701367.2001.10608975

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cumming , J. , & Hall , C. (2002). Athletes’ use of imagery in the off-season. The Sport Psychologist, 16(2), 160172. doi:10.1123/tsp.16.2.160

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cumming , J.L. , & Ste-Marie , D.M. (2001). The cognitive and motivational effects of imagery training: A matter of perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 15(3), 276288. doi:10.1123/tsp.15.3.276

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dupee , M. , Werthner , P. , & Forneris , T. (2015). A preliminary study on the relationship between athletes’ ability to self-regulate and world ranking. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 42(2), 5763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galloway , S.M. (2011). The effect of biofeedback on tennis service accuracy. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 9(3), 251266. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2011.614851

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gorgulu , R. , Cooke , A. , & Woodman , T. (2019). Anxiety and ironic errors of performance: Task instruction matters. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 41(2), 8295. PubMed ID: 31027456 doi:10.1123/jsep.2018-0268

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall , C. , Mack , D. , Paivio , A. , & Hausenblas , H. (1998). Imagery use by athletes: Development of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29(1), 7389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haney , J.N. , & Euse , F.J. (1976). Skin conductance and heart rate responses to neutral, positive, and negative imagery: Implications for convert behavior therapy procedures. Behavior Therapy, 7(4), 494503. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(76)80169-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones , M.V. , Mace , R.D. , Bray , S.R. , MacRae , A.W. , & Stockbridge , C. (2002). The impact of motivational imagery on the emotional state and self-efficacy levels of novice climbers. Journal of Sport Behavior, 25(1), 5773.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khazan , I.Z. (2013). The clinical handbook of biofeedback: A step-by-step guide for training and practice with mindfulness. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lagos , L. , Vaschillo , E. , Vaschillo , B. , Lehrer , P. , Bates , M. , & Pandina , R. (2008). Heart rate variability biofeedback as a strategy for dealing with competitive anxiety: A case study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 36(3), 109115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lagos , L. , Vaschillo , E. , Vaschillo , B. , Lehrer , P. , Bates , M. , & Pandina , R. (2011). Virtual reality-assisted heart rate variability biofeedback as a strategy to improve golf performance: A case study. Biofeedback, 39(1), 1520. doi:10.5298/1081-5937-39.1.11

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lang , P.J. , Kozak , M. , Miller , G.A , Levin , D.N. , & McLean , A. (1980). Emotional imagery: Conceptual structure and pattern of somato-visceral response. Psychophysiology, 17(2), 179192. PubMed ID: 7375619 doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1980.tb00133.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lehrer , P.M. , Vaschillo , E. , & Vaschillo , B. (2000). Resonant frequency biofeedback training to increase cardiac variability: Rationale and manual for training. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 25(3), 177191. PubMed ID: 10999236 doi:10.1023/A:1009554825745

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leslie-Toogood , A. , Hammond , T. , & Gregg , M. (n.d.). How to develop your own imagery scripts. Academia, 25(4), 584605. https://www.academia.edu/4256624/How_to_develop_your_own_imagery_scripts_Developed_by_Dr_Adrienne_Leslie_Toogood. Accessed November 20, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mellalieu , S.D. , Hanton , S. , & Thomas , O. (2009). The effects of a motivational general- arousal imagery intervention upon preperformance symptoms in male rugby union players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(1), 175185. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.07.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meuret , A.E. , Wilhelm , F.H. , & Roth , W.T. (2001). Respiratory biofeedback-assisted therapy in panic disorder. Behavior Modification, 25(4), 584605. PubMed ID: 11530717 doi:10.1177/0145445501254006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moran , A.P. (2013). Using imagination in sport: Mental imagery and mental practice in athletes. In A.P. Moran (Ed.), Sport and exercise psychology: A critical introduction (pp. 165200). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan , S.J. , & Mora , J.A.M. (2017). Effect of heart rate variability biofeedback on sport performance, a systematic review. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 42(3), 235245. doi:10.1007/s10484-017-9364-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morris , T. , Spittle , M. , & Watt , A.P. (2005). Imagery in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Munroe-Chandler , K.J. , Hall , C.R. , Fishburne , G.J. , Murphy , L. , & Hall , N.D. (2012). Effects of a cognitive specific imagery intervention on the soccer skill performance of young athletes: Age group comparisons. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(3), 324331. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.12.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson Ferguson , K. , & Hall , C. (2020). A voice unheard: A qualitative exploration of varsity athletes’ perspective on the use of biofeedback postintervention. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/spy0000204

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O , J. , Munroe-Chandler , K.J. , Hall , C.R. , & Hall , N.D. (2014). Using motivational general-mastery imagery to improve self-efficacy of youth squash players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 26(1), 6681. doi:10.1080/10413200.2013.778914

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paivio , A. (1985). Cognitive and motivational functions of imagery in human performance. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 10(4), 22S28S. PubMed ID: 4085129

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paul , M. , & Garg , K. (2012). The effect of heart rate variability biofeedback on performance psychology of basketball players. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 37(2), 131144. PubMed ID: 22402913 doi:10.1007/s10484-012-9185-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perry , D.F. (2018). Examining the effects of a mindfulness-based biofeedback intervention on self-regulation and sport performance in soccer athletes (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. (Accession No. 10812822)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sime , W. (2003). Sports psychology applications of biofeedback and neurofeedback. In M.S. Schwarts & F. Andrasik (Eds.), Biofeedback: A practitioner’s guide (pp. 560588). New York, NY: The Guildford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thought Technology Ltd. (n.d.) Procomp5 infiniti system with biograph infiniti software. Retrieved from http://thoughttechnology.com/index.php/procomp5-infiniti-5-channel-biofeedback-neurofeedback-system-w-biograph-infiniti-software.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vadocz , E.A. , Hall , C.R. , & Moritz , S.E. (1997). The relationship between competitive anxiety and imagery use. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9(2), 241253. doi:10.1080/10413209708406485

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vealey , R.S. , & Greenleaf , C.A. (2010). Seeing is believing: Understanding and using imagery in sport. In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (6th ed., pp. 267304). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodman , T. , & Hardy , L. (2003). The relative impact of cognitive anxiety and self-confidence upon sport performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21(6), 443457. PubMed ID: 12846532 doi:10.1080/0264041031000101809

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 872 873 77
Full Text Views 53 53 1
PDF Downloads 19 19 0