A Buffering Effect of Mental Toughness on the Negative Impact of Basic Psychological Need Thwarting on Positive Youth Athlete Functioning

in The Sport Psychologist
View More View Less
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $70.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $94.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $134.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $178.00

Basic psychological needs (BPN) are a construct that helps clarify the psychological mechanism to reach desirable outcomes for youth athletes. When BPN are undermined, people should be less likely to thrive. As mental toughness (MT) can reduce the negative effects of stressors, MT may buffer the negative effects of maladaptive motivation. This study investigated the mediating role of thriving on the relationships between BPN thwarting and important outcomes for youth athletes’ positive functioning. It also examined the buffering effects of MT. One hundred eighty-eight Canadian youth athletes (Mage = 15.51) answered an online survey. The results demonstrated that thriving was a significant mediator, and the indirect relationships were moderated by MT. The indirect associations were nonsignificant for youth with high MT. The findings demonstrated that MT might decrease the negative impacts of BPN thwarting on thriving and important outcomes for young athletes.

Kinoshita and Sato are with the Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan. MacIntosh is with the School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Sato (satoshintaro@aoni.waseda.jp) is corresponding author.
  • Balish, S.M., McLaren, C., Rainham, D., & Blanchard, C. (2014). Correlates of youth sport attrition: A review and future directions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(4), 429439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.04.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartholomew, K.J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R.M., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: Assessing the darker side of athletic experience. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33(1), 75102. PubMed ID: 21451172 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.33.1.75

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Behzadnia, B., Adachi, P.J., Deci, E.L., & Mohammadzadeh, H. (2018). Associations between students’ perceptions of physical education teachers’ interpersonal styles and students’ wellness, knowledge, performance, and intentions to persist at physical activity: A self-determination theory approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 39, 1019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.07.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, J.J., Hardy, L., & Beattie, S. (2013). Enhancing mental toughness and performance under pressure in elite young cricketers: A 2-year longitudinal intervention. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 2(4), 281297. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033129

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cerasoli, C.P., Nicklin, J.M., & Nassrelgrgawi, A.S. (2016). Performance, incentives, and needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness: A meta-analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 40(6), 781813. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-016-9578-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheon, S.H., Reeve, J., & Ntoumanis, N. (2018). A needs-supportive intervention to help PE teachers enhance students’ prosocial behavior and diminish antisocial behavior. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 35, 7488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.11.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Costa, S., Ntoumanis, N., & Bartholomew, K.J. (2015). Predicting the brighter and darker sides of interpersonal relationships: Does psychological need thwarting matter? Motivation and Emotion, 39(1), 1124. 10.1007/s11031-014-9427-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diener, E.D., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 7175. PubMed ID: 16367493 https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dugas, M., Gaudreau, P., & Carraro, N. (2012). Implementation planning and progress on physical activity goals: The mediating role of life-management strategies. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(1), 7785. PubMed ID: 22428414 https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2012.10599827

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eime, R.M., Young, J.A., Harvey, J.T., Charity, M.J., & Payne, W.R. (2013). A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: Informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fitzwater, J.P.J., Arthur, C.A., & Hardy, L. (2018). “The tough get tougher”: Mental skills training with elite military recruits. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 7(1), 93107. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000101

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flinchbaugh, C., Luth, M.T., & Li, P. (2015). A challenge or a hindrance? Understanding the effects of stressors and thriving on life satisfaction. International Journal of Stress Management, 22(4), 323345. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039136

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, L.A., Magee, C.A., & Vella, S.A. (2016). Social climate profiles in adolescent sports: Associations with enjoyment and intention to continue. Journal of Adolescence, 52, 112123. PubMed ID: 27544492 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.08.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gucciardi, D.F. (2016). Mental toughness as a moderator of the intention–behaviour gap in the rehabilitation of knee pain. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(6), 454458. PubMed ID: 26194443 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2015.06.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gucciardi, D.F. (2017). Mental toughness: Progress and prospects. Current Opinion in Psychology, 16, 1723. PubMed ID: 28813344 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.03.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gucciardi, D.F., Hanton, S., Gordon, S., Mallett, C.J., & Temby, P. (2015). The concept of mental toughness: Tests of dimensionality, nomological network, and traitness. Journal of Personality, 83(1), 2644. PubMed ID: 24428736 https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12079

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gucciardi, D.F., & Jackson, B. (2015). Understanding sport continuation: An integration of the theories of planned behaviour and basic psychological needs. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18, 3136.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gucciardi, D.F., Stamatis, A., & Ntoumanis, N. (2017). Controlling coaching and athlete thriving in elite adolescent netballers: The buffering effect of athletes’ mental toughness. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(8), 718722. PubMed ID: 28347719 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.02.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hannan, T.E., Moffitt, R.L., Neumann, D.L., & Thomas, P.R. (2015). Applying the theory of planned behavior to physical activity: The moderating role of mental toughness. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37(5), 514522. PubMed ID: 26524097 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2015-0074

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haraldsen, H.M., Solstad, B.E., Ivarsson, A., Halvari, H., & Abrahamsen, F.E. (2019). Change in basic need frustration in relation to perfectionism, anxiety and performance in elite junior performers. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 30(4), 754765. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13614

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hebert, J.J., Møller, N.C., Andersen, L.B., & Wedderkopp, N. (2015). Organized sport participation is associated with higher levels of overall health-related physical activity in children (CHAMPS Study-DK). PLos One, 10(8), e0134621 . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134621

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huta, V., & Waterman, A.S. (2013). Eudaimonia and its distinction from hedonia: Developing a classification and terminology for understanding conceptual and operational definitions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 14251456.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, G., & Wang, Y. (2019). The influence of gratitude on learning engagement among adolescents: The multiple mediating effects of teachers’ emotional support and students’ basic psychological needs. Journal of Adolescence, 77, 2131. PubMed ID: 31605886 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.09.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jõesaar, H., Hein, V., & Hagger, M. S. (2011). Peer influence on young athletes’ need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and persistence in sport: A 12-month prospective study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(5), 500508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.04.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keyes, C.L. (2006). Mental health in adolescence: Is America’s youth flourishing? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(3), 395402. https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.76.3.395

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinoshita, K., MacIntosh, E., & Sato, S. (2021). Thriving in youth sport: The antecedents and consequences, International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2021.1877327

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). Guilford.

  • Kristiansen, E., & Roberts, G.C. (2010). Young elite athletes and social support: Coping with competitive and organizational stress in “Olympic” competition. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(4), 686695. PubMed ID: 19793212 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00950.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, J., Bartholomew, K., & Chung, P.K. (2017). Perceptions of teachers’ interpersonal styles and well-being and ill-being in secondary school physical education students: The role of need satisfaction and need frustration. School Mental Health, 9(4), 360371.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lundqvist, C. (2011). Well-being in competitive sports—The feel-good factor? A review of conceptual considerations of well-being. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 4(2), 109127. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2011.584067

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacKinnon, D.P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Taylor & Francis Group.

  • MacKinnon, D.P. (2011). Integrating mediators and moderators in research design. Research on Wocial Work Practice, 21(6), 675681.

  • Mahoney, J.W., Ntoumanis, N., Gucciardi, D.F., Mallett, C.J., & Stebbings, J. (2016). Implementing an autonomy-supportive intervention to develop mental toughness in adolescent rowers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(2), 199215. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2015.1101030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maxwell, S.E., Cole, D.A., & Mitchell, M.A. (2011). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation: Partial and complete mediation under an autoregressive model. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46(5), 816841. PubMed ID: 26736047 https://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2011.606716

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mental Health Commission of Canada. (2013). Making the case for investing in mental health in Canada. https://cmha.ca/about-cmha/fast-facts-about-mental-illness

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Laughlin, K.D., Martin, M.J., & Ferrer, E. (2018). Cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal mediation processes. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 53(3), 375402.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Porath, C., Spreitzer, G., Gibson, C., & Garnett, F.G. (2012). Thriving at work: Toward its measurement, construct validation, and theoretical refinement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(2), 250275. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.756

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Preacher, K.J., & Hayes, A.F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, 36, 717731.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raabe, J., Schmidt, K., Carl, J., & Höner, O. (2019). The effectiveness of autonomy support interventions with physical education teachers and youth sport coaches: A systematic review. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 41(6), 345355. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2019-0026

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reeve, J., & Cheon, S.H. (2016). Teachers become more autonomy supportive after they believe it is easy to do. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 178189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.08.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ren, H., Yunlu, D.G., Shaffer, M., & Fodchuk, K.M. (2015). Expatriate success and thriving: The influence of job deprivation and emotional stability. Journal of World Business, 50(1), 6978. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2014.01.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 6878. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141166.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2017). Self-determination theory: basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. Guilford Publications.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seligman, M.E.P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 514. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spreitzer, G., & Porath, C. (2014). Self-determination theory as a nutriment for thriving: Building an integrative model of human growth at work. In M. Gagné (Ed.), Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation and self-determination theory (pp. 245258).  Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spreitzer, G., Porath, C.L., & Gibson, C.B. (2012). Toward human sustainability: How to enable more thriving at work. Organizational Dynamics, 41(2), 155162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2012.01.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spreitzer, G., Sutcliffe, K., Dutton, J., Sonenshein, S., & Grant, A.M. (2005). A socially embedded model of thriving at work. Organization Science, 16(5), 537549. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1050.0153

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stamatis, A., Grandjean, P., Morgan, G., Padgett, R.N., Cowden, R., & Koutakis, P. (2020). Developing and training mental toughness in sport: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and pre-test and post-test experiments. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 6(1), e000747. PubMed ID: 32577300 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000747

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statistics Canada. (2019). Sports for fun and fitness. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/190521/dq190521c-eng.pdf

  • Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (Vol. 6). Pearson.

  • Thompson, E.R. (2007). Development and validation of an internationally reliable short-form of the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS). Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 38(2), 227242. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022106297301

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tian, L., Han, M., & Huebner, E.S. (2014). Preliminary development of the adolescent students’ basic psychological needs at school scale. Journal of Adolescence, 37(3), 257267. PubMed ID: 24636686 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.01.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tibbert, S.J., Andersen, M.B., & Morris, T. (2015). What a difference a “Mentally Toughening” year makes: The acculturation of a rookie. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 17, 6878. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.10.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vansteenkiste, M., & Ryan, R.M. (2013). On psychological growth and vulnerability: basic psychological need satisfaction and need frustration as a unifying principle. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 23(3), 263280. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032359

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verner-Filion, J., & Vallerand, R.J. (2018). A longitudinal examination of elite youth soccer players: The role of passion and basic need satisfaction in athletes’ optimal functioning. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 39, 2028. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.07.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weber, R. (2009). Protection of children in competitive sport: Some critical questions for London 2012. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 44,(1) 5569.https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690208101485

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 262 262 131
Full Text Views 39 39 21
PDF Downloads 44 44 21