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Although applied sport psychology services have traditionally been provided in athletic settings, there has been a trend toward a more general application across different performance domains and, in particular, with tactical populations (i.e., military, law enforcement, and firefighters). The purpose of the current study was to systematically review the existing research on mental qualities and techniques in tactical populations. A database search revealed 7,220 potentially relevant articles, which were screened by two independent reviewers based on predefined inclusion criteria. This systematic screening process helped to identify 49 articles for further analysis. The findings highlight the benefits of developing mental qualities and techniques among tactical populations, as they can help to nurture a range of positive cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. Yet, this review also indicates gaps and limitations that need to be addressed in future research to gain a better understanding of the antecedents, mediators, and consequences of these psychological constructs.
Raabe is with the College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. Castillo is with Magellan Federal, Columbia, SC, USA. Carl is with the Dept. of Sport Science and Sport, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.