Stress-Related Growth in Elite Sport Performers: Qualitative Differentiators in Psychosocial Mechanisms

in The Sport Psychologist
View More View Less
  • 1 School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom
  • | 2 Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $70.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $94.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $134.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $178.00

The purpose of this study was to explore growth following the experience of stressors and compare the experiences of elite athletes who exhibit higher and lower levels of growth. Six elite athletes (five female and one male) participated in a semi-structured interview. Three athletes reported experiencing higher levels, and three athletes reported experiencing lower levels of growth. Interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed that understanding of self, development in athletic identity, and social support are key psychological mechanisms, which differentiate elite athletes who reported experiencing higher and lower levels of growth. Athletes higher in reported growth showed greater association with meaningful behavioral actions, ultimately reflecting the modification of previously held beliefs into a new worldview. Athletes lower in reported growth reflected an attempt to maintain beliefs into an already existing worldview, thus hindering growth. The findings show psychological mechanisms that accumulatively promote growth and provide a foundation for subsequent intervention studies.

Fletcher (d.fletcher@lboro.ac.uk) is corresponding author.

  • Allen-Collinson, J. (2016). Breathing in life: Phenomenological perspectives on sport and exercise. In B. Smith & A.C. Sparkes (Eds.), Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise (pp. 1123). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allen-Collinson, J., & Evans, A. (2019). To be or not to be phenomenology: That is the question. European Journal for Sport and Society, 16(4), 295300. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/16138171.2019.1693148

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arnold, R., & Fletcher, D. (2021). Stressors, hassles, and adversity. In R. Arnold & D. Fletcher (Eds.), Stress, well-being, and performance in sport (pp. 3162). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bahn, S., & Weatherill, P. (2013). Qualitative social research: A risky business when it comes to collecting ‘sensitive’ data. Qualitative Research, 13(1), 1935. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794112439016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biggerstaff, D., & Thompson, A.R. (2008). Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA): A qualitative methodology of choice in healthcare research. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 5(3), 214224. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780880802314304

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birt, L., Scott, S., Cavers, D., Campbell, C., & Walter, F. (2016). Member checking: A tool to enhance trustworthiness or merely a nod to validation? Qualitative Health Research, 26(13), 18021811. PubMed ID: 27340178 https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316654870

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boals, A., & Schuler, K.L. (2018). Reducing reports of illusory posttraumatic growth: A revised version of the Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS-R). Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 10(2), 190198. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000267

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boerner, M., Joseph, S., & Murphy, D. (2020). A theory on reports of constructive (real) and illusory posttraumatic growth. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 60(3), 384399. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167817719597

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brewer, B.W. (1993). Self-identity and specific vulnerability to depressed mood. Journal of Personality, 61(3), 343364. PubMed ID: 8246106 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1993.tb00284.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brewer, B.W. (2007). Psychology of sport injury rehabilitation. In G. Tenenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed., pp. 404424). Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brewer, B.W., Cornelius, A.E., Van Raalte, J.L., & Tennen, H. (2017). Adversarial growth after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 39(2), 134144. PubMed ID: 28787253 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2016-0210

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brewer, B.W., Van Raalte, J.L., & Linder, D.E. (1993). Athletic identity: Hercules’ muscles or Achilles heel? International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24(2), 237254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brocki, J.M., & Wearden, A.J. (2006). A critical evaluation of the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) in health psychology. Psychology and Health, 21(1), 87108. https://doi.org/10.1080/14768320500230185

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, J., Sarkar, M., & Howells, K. (2021). Growth, resilience, and thriving: A jangle fallacy? In R. Wadey, M.C. Day, & K. Howells. (Eds.), Growth following adversity in sport: A mechanism to positive change (pp. 5972).  Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, C.J., Webb, T.L., Robinson, M.A., & Cotgreave, R. (2018). Athletes’ experiences of social support during their transition out of elite sport: An interpretive phenomenological analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 36, 7180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burke, S. (2016). Rethinking ‘validity’ and ‘trustworthiness’ in qualitative inquiry: How might we judge the quality of qualitative research in sport and exercise sciences? In B. Smith & A.C. Sparkes (Eds.), Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise (pp. 330339). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calhoun, L.G., Cann, A., Tedeschi, R.G., & McMillan, J. (2000). A correlational test of the relationship between posttraumatic growth, religion, and cognitive processing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(3), 521527. PubMed ID: 10948491 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007745627077

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cann, A., Calhoun, L.G., Tedeschi, R.G., Triplett, K.N., Vishnevsky, T., & Lindstrom, C. M. (2011). Assessing posttraumatic cognitive processes: The event related rumination inventory. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping: An International Journal, 24(2), 137156. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.20https://doi.org/10.529901

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cottee-Lane, D., Pistrang, N., & Bryant-Waugh, R. (2004). Childhood onset anorexia nervosa: The experience of parents. European Eating Disorders Review: The Professional Journal of the Eating Disorders Association, 12(3), 169177. https://doi.org/10.1002/erv.560

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crawford, J.J., Gayman, A.M., & Tracey, J. (2014). An examination of post-traumatic growth in Canadian and American ParaSport athletes with acquired spinal cord injury. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(4), 399406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.03.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Day, M.C., & Wadey, R. (2017). Researching growth following adversity in sport and exercise: Methodological implications and future recommendations. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 9(4), 499513. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2017.1328460

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flavell, J.H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive–developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906911. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.https://doi.org/10.906

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fletcher, D. (2019). Psychological resilience and adversarial growth in sport and performance. In E.O. Acevedo (Ed.), The Oxford research encyclopedia of sport, exercise, and performance psychology (pp. 731756).  Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fletcher, D., Hanton, S., & Mellalieu, S.D. (2006). An organisational stress review: Conceptual and theoretical issues in competitive sport. In S. Hanton & S.D. Mellalieu (Eds.), Literature reviews in sport psychology (pp. 321374). Nova Science.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frazier, P., Tennen, H., Gavian, M., Park, C., Tomich, P., & Tashiro, T. (2009). Does self-reported posttraumatic growth reflect genuine positive change? Psychological Science, 20(7), 912919. PubMed ID: 19515115 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02381.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galli, N., & Reel, J.J. (2012a). Can good come from bad? An examination of adversarial growth in Division I NCAA athletes. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 5(2), 199212. https://doi.org/10.1123/jis.5.2.199

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galli, N., & Reel, J.J. (2012b). ‘It was hard, but it was good’: A qualitative exploration of stress-related growth in Division I intercollegiate athletes. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 4(3), 297319. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2012.693524

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grove, J.R., Lavallee, D., & Gordon, S. (1997). Coping with retirement from sport: The influence of athletic identity. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9(2), 191203. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209708406481

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hammer, C., Podlog, L., Wadey, R., Galli, N., Forber-Pratt, A. J., Newton, M., Hall, M., & Greviskes, L. (2017). Understanding posttraumatic growth of paratriathletes with acquired disability. Disability and Rehabilitation, 15, 19. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2017.1402961

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanna, P. (2012). Using internet technologies (such as Skype) as a research medium: A research note. Qualitative Research, 12(2), 239242. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794111426607

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Helgeson, V.S., Reynolds, K.A., & Tomich, P.L. (2006). A meta-analytic review of benefit finding and growth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(5), 797816. PubMed ID: 17032085 https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.74.5.797

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hobfoll, S., Hall, B., Canetti-Nisim, D., Galea, S., Johnson, R., & Palmieri, P. (2007). Refining our understanding of traumatic growth in the face of terrorism: Moving from meaning cognitions to doing what is meaningful. Applied Psychology, 56(3), 345366. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00292.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howells, K., & Fletcher, D. (2015). Sink or swim: Adversity-and growth-related experiences in Olympic swimming champions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16(3), 3748. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howells, K., & Fletcher, D. (2016). Adversarial growth in Olympic swimmers: Constructive reality or illusory self-deception? Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 38(2), 173186. PubMed ID: 27392387 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2015-0159

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howells, K., Sarkar, M., & Fletcher, D. (2017). Can athletes benefit from difficulty? A systematic review of growth following adversity in competitive sport. In M. Wilson, V. Walsh, & B. Parkin (Eds.), Sport and the brain: The science of preparing, enduring and winning (Vol. 234, pp. 117159). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2017.06.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howells, K., Wadey, R., Roy-Davis, K., & Evans, L. (2020). A systematic review of interventions to promote growth following adversity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 48, 101671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2020.101671

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Janoff-Bulman, R. (1989). Assumptive worlds and the stress of traumatic events: Applications of the schema construct. Social Cognition, 7(2), 113136. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.1989.7.2.113

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joseph, S., & Linley, P.A. (2005). Positive adjustment to threatening events: An organismic valuing theory of growth through adversity. Review of General Psychology, 9(3), 262280. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.9.3.262

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joseph, S., & Linley, P.A. (2006). Growth following adversity: Theoretical perspectives and implications for clinical practice. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(8), 10411053. PubMed ID: 16473442 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.12.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joseph, S., Murphy, D., & Regel, S. (2012). An affective–cognitive processing model of post-traumatic growth. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19(4), 316325. PubMed ID: 22610981 https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1798

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krefting, L. (1991). Rigor in qualitative research: The assessment of trustworthiness. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(3), 214222. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.45.3.214

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kunz, S., Joseph, S., Geyh, S., & Peter, C. (2018). Coping and posttraumatic growth: A longitudinal comparison of two alternative views. Rehabilitation Psychology, 63(2), 240249. PubMed ID: 29878829 https://doi.org/10.1037/rep0000205

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larkin, M., & Thompson, A. (2012). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In A. Thompson & D. Harper (Eds.), Qualitative research methods in mental health and psychotherapy: A guide for students and practitioners (pp. 99116).  John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119973249

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larkin, M., Watts, S., & Clifton, E. (2006). Giving voice and making sense in interpretative phenomenological analysis. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 102120. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp062oa

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leppma, M., Mnatsakanova, A., Sarkisian, K., Scott, O., Adjeroh, L., Andrew, M.E., . . . McCanlies, E.C. (2018). Stressful life events and posttraumatic growth among police officers: A cross-sectional study. Stress and Health, 34(1), 175186. PubMed ID: 28703379 https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2772

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levitt, H.M., Bamberg, M., Creswell, J.W., Frost, D., Josselson, R., & Suárez-Orozco, C. (2018). Journal article reporting standards for qualitative research in psychology: The APA publications and communications board task force report. American Psychologist, 73(1), 2646. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000151

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levitt, H.M., Motulsky, S.L., Wertz, F.J., Morrow, S.L., & Ponterotto, J.G. (2017). Recommendations for designing and reviewing qualitative research in psychology: Promoting methodological integrity. Qualitative Psychology, 4(1), 222. https://doi.org/10.1037/qup0000082

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Linley, P.A., & Joseph, S. (2004). Positive change following trauma and adversity: A review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(1), 1121. PubMed ID: 15027788 https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOTS.0000014671.27856.7e

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maercker, A., & Zoellner, T. (2004). The Janus face of self-perceived growth: Toward a two-component model of posttraumatic growth. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 4148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrow, S.L. (2005). Quality and trustworthiness in qualitative research in counseling psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(2), 250260. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.52.2.250

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morse, J.M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K., & Spiers, J. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1(2), 1322. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690200100202

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moshman, D. (2018). Metacognitive theories revisited. Educational Psychology Review, 30(2), 599606. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-017-9413-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neely, K.C., Dunn, J.G., McHugh, T.-L.F., & Holt, N.L. (2018). Female athletes’ experiences of positive growth following deselection in sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 40,(4) 173185. PubMed ID: 30157704 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2017-0136

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neely, K.C., Tamminen, K.A., & Holt, N.L. (2021). Gender differences in athletes’ experiences of adversity and growth. In R. Wadey, M. Day, & K. Howells (Eds.), Growth following adversity in sport: A mechanism to positive change (pp. 160173). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orille, A.C., Marton, V., & Taku, K. (2020). Posttraumatic growth impacts views of others’ trauma: The roles of shared experience and gender. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 00(0), 114. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167820961928

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, C.L., Cohen, L.H., & Murch, R.L. (1996). Assessment and prediction of stress-related growth. Journal of Personality, 64(1), 71105. PubMed ID: 8656319 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1996.tb00815.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ponterotto, J.G. (2006). Brief note on the origins, evolution, and meaning of the qualitative research concept thick description. The Qualitative Report, 11(3), 538549.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roepke, A.M., Benson, L., Tsukayama, E., & Yaden, D.B. (2018). Prospective writing: Randomized controlled trial of an intervention for facilitating growth after adversity. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(6), 627642. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2017.1365161

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, C.R. (1967). On becoming a person. Constable.

  • Roy-Davis, K., Wadey, R., & Evans, L. (2017). A grounded theory of sport injury-related growth. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 6(1), 3552. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000080

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salim, J., & Wadey, R. (2018). Can emotional disclosure promote sport injury-related growth? Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 30(4), 367387. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2017.1417338

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salim, J., & Wadey, R. (2019). Using gratitude to promote sport injury–related growth. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 0, 120. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2019.1626515

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salim, J., Wadey, R., & Diss, C. (2016). Examining hardiness, coping and stress-related growth following sport injury. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(2), 154169. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2015.1086448

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sarkar, M., & Fletcher, D. (2014). Psychological resilience in sport performers: A review of stressors and protective factors. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(15), 14191434. PubMed ID: 24716648 https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.901551

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sarkar, M., Fletcher, D., & Brown, D.J. (2015). What doesn’t kill me. . .: Adversity-related experiences are vital in the development of superior Olympic performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(4), 475479. PubMed ID: 25035123 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.06.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schinke, R.J., Stambulova, N.B., Si, G., & Moore, Z. (2018). International society of sport psychology position stand: Athletes’ mental health, performance, and development. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(6), 622639. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2017.1295557

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheikh, A.I. (2008). Posttraumatic growth in trauma survivors: Implications for practice. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 21(1), 8597. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515070801896186

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sinclair, D.A., & Orlick, T. (1993). Positive transitions from high-performance sport. The Sport Psychologist, 7(2), 138150. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.7.2.138

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B., & McGannon, K.R. (2018). Developing rigor in qualitative research: Problems and opportunities within sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 101121. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2017.1317357

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J., & Osborn, M. (2004). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In G.M. Breakwell (Ed.), Doing social psychology research (2nd ed., pp. 229254). John Wiley & Sons.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J.A. (1996). Beyond the divide between cognition and discourse: Using interpretative phenomenological analysis in health psychology. Psychology and Health, 11(2), 261271. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870449608400256

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J.A. (2004). Reflecting on the development of interpretative phenomenological analysis and its contribution to qualitative research in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 1(1), 3954. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088704qp004oa

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J.A. (2011). Evaluating the contribution of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Health Psychology Review, 5(1), 927. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.20https://doi.org/10.510659

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, J.A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method and research. SAGE.

  • Sparkes, A.C. (1998). Validity in qualitative inquiry and the problem of criteria: Implications for sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 12(4), 363386. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.12.4.363

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stake, R.E. (1995). The art of case study research. SAGE.

  • Stockton, H., Hunt, N., & Joseph, S. (2011). Cognitive processing, rumination, and posttraumatic growth. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(1), 8592. PubMed ID: 21268118 https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20606

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swann, C., Moran, A., & Piggott, D. (2015). Defining elite athletes: Issues in the study of expert performance in sport psychology. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16(1), 314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.07.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tamminen, K.A., & Neely, K.C. (2016). Positive growth in sport. In N.L. Holt (Ed.), Positive youth development through sport (2nd ed., pp. 193204). Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tamminen, K.A., Holt, N.L., & Neely, K.C. (2013). Exploring adversity and the potential for growth among elite female athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(1), 2836. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.07.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, S.E., & Armor, D.A. (1996). Positive illusions and coping with adversity. Journal of Personality, 64(4), 873898. PubMed ID: 8956516 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1996.tb00947.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, J., Ogilvie, B., & Lavallee, D. (2005). Career transition among athletes: Is there life after sports? In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (5th ed., pp. 595615). Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tedeschi, R.G., & Calhoun, L.G. (1995). Trauma and transformation: Growing in the aftermath of suffering. SAGE.

  • Tedeschi, R.G., & Calhoun, L.G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 118. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1501_01

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tedeschi, R.G., Shakespeare-Finch, J., Taku, K., & Calhoun, L.G. (2018). Posttraumatic growth: Theory, research, and applications. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315527451

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, D.R. (2017). Feedback from research participants: Are member checks useful in qualitative research? Qualitative Research in Psychology, 14(1), 2341. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2016.1219435

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tracy, S.J. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight “big-tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(10), 837851. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800410383121

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Triplett, K.N., Tedeschi, R.G., Cann, A., Calhoun, L.G., & Reeve, C.L. (2012). Posttraumatic growth, meaning in life, and life satisfaction in response to trauma. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(4), 400. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024204

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaillant, G.E. (1995). The wisdom of the ego. Harvard University Press.

  • Zoellner, T., & Maercker, A. (2006). Posttraumatic growth in clinical psychology—A critical review and introduction of a two-component model. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(5), 626653. PubMed ID: 16515831 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2006.01.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zoellner, T., Rabe, S., Karl, A., & Maercker, A. (2008). Posttraumatic growth in accident survivors: Openness and optimism as predictors of its constructive or illusory sides. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64(3), 245263. PubMed ID: 18302209 https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20441

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 50 50 50
Full Text Views 9 9 9
PDF Downloads 10 10 10