Profiling Coach Openness to Positive Youth Development Before, During, and After Their Participation in a Coach Education Course

in The Sport Psychologist
View More View Less
  • 1 Higher School of Education, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  • | 2 Higher School of Education, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Viana do Castelo, Portugal
  • | 3 Centre for Research and Innovation in Education (inED), Porto, Portugal
  • | 4 School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • | 5 Department of Applied Human Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada
Restricted access

Given that coaches who enroll in coach education courses may have diverse levels of openness to learning about positive youth development (PYD), the purpose of this study was to profile coaches’ openness to PYD before, during, and after their participation in a coach education course. A multimethod approach that involved field notes, nonparticipant observations, and interviews was used to create three profiles illustrating coaches’ varying levels of openness. Participants were three male coaches involved in competitive and recreational youth sport who had been coaching youth for more than 12 years. The profile of Graham represents a coach who was open to PYD. The profile of Fonseca represents a coach who was partially open to PYD. Finally, the profile of Taylor represents a coach who had no openness to PYD. Results are discussed in relation to how performance outcomes remain a high priority in youth sport, compelling some coaches to pay “socially desirable lip service” to PYD without any real intentions to modify their coaching practice. Revised policies and funding models, developed with input from multiple levels of stakeholders in the sport system, may prove useful in inspiring more coach openness to learning about PYD. This study may help further our understanding on how coach educators can use differentiated pedagogical approaches that may help make PYD a worthwhile and tangible objective for coaches who register in PYD coach education courses. Moving forward, future investigations on coach openness could be expanded to other sport contexts and coach development systems.

  • Alharahsheh, H., & Pius, A. (2020). A review of key paradigms: Positivism vs interpretivism. Global Academic Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(3), 3943.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bean, C., & Forneris, T. (2016). Examining the importance of intentionally structuring the youth sport context to facilitate positive youth development. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(4), 410425. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2016.1164764

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bean, C., Kramers, S., Forneris, T., & Camiré, M. (2018). The implicit/explicit continuum of life skills development and transfer. Quest, 70(4), 456470. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2018.1451348

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2019). Reflecting on reflexive thematic analysis. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 11(4), 589597. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2019.1628806

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2021). One size fits all? What counts as quality practice in (reflexive) thematic analysis? Qualitative Research in Psychology, 18(3), 328352. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2020.1769238

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M. (2015). Reconciling competition and positive youth development in sport. STAPS, 109, 2539. https://doi.org/10.3917/sta.109.0025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M., Kendellen, K., Rathwell, S., & Charbonneau, E. (2018). Evaluation of the pilot implementation of the coaching for life skills program. International Sport Coaching Journal, 5(3), 227236. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2018-0006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M., Newman, T., Bean, C., & Strachan, L. (2021). Reimagining positive youth development and life skills in sport through a social justice lens. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2021.1958954

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M., & Santos, F. (2019). Promoting positive youth development and life skills in youth sport: Challenges and opportunities amidst increased professionalization. Journal of Sport Pedagogy and Research, 5(1), 2734.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M., Trudel, P., & Forneris, T. (2014). Examining how model youth sport coaches learn to facilitate positive youth development. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(1), 117. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2012.726975

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coakley, J. (2016). Positive youth development through sport: Myths, beliefs, and realities. In N.L. Holt (Ed.), Positive youth development through sport (pp. 2133). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darnell, S., Whitley, M., Camiré, M., Massey, W., Blom, L., Chawansky, M., Forde, S., & Hayden, L. (2019). Systematic reviews of sport for development literature: Managerial and policy implications. Journal of Global Sport Management. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/24704067.2019.1671776

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Denison, J., Mills, J., & Konoval, T. (2017). Sports’ disciplinary legacy and the challenge of ‘coaching differently.’ Sport, Education and Society, 22(6), 772783. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2015.1061986

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Denzin, N.K., & Lincoln, Y.S. (2011). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (4th ed.). Sage.

  • Falcão, W., Bloom, G., & Gilbert, W. (2012). Coaches’ perceptions of a coach training program designed to promote youth developmental outcomes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24(4), 429444. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2012.692452

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fraser-Thomas, J.L., Coté, J., & Deakin, J. (2005). Youth sport programs: An avenue to foster positive youth development. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 10(1), 1940. https://doi.org/10.1080/1740898042000334890

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galatti, L., Santos, Y., & Korsakas, P. (2019). A coach developers’ narrative on scaffolding a learner-centred coaching course in Brazil. International Sport Coaching Journal, 6(3), 339348. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2018-0084

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gordon, M., & O’Brien, T. (2007). Bridging theory and practice in teacher education. Sense Publishers.

  • Gould, G., & Carson, S. (2008). Life skills development through sport: Current status and future directions. International Review of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 1(1), 2158. https://doi.org/10.1080/17509840701834573

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guba, E., & Lincoln, Y. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105117). Sage Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harwood, C., Barker, J., & Anderson, R. (2015). Psychosocial development in youth soccer players: Assessing the effectiveness of the 5Cs Intervention program. The Sport Psychologist, 29(1), 319334. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2014-0161

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hascher, T., & Hagenauer, G. (2016). Openness to theory and its importance for pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy, emotions, and classroom behaviour in the teaching practicum. International Journal of Educational Research, 77, 1525. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2016.02.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holt, N.L., Deal, C.J., & Smyth, C.L. (2016). Future directions for positive youth development through sport. In N.L. Holt (Ed.), Positive youth development through sport (pp. 229240). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jørgensen, H., Lemyre, P., & Holt, N. (2020). Multiple learning contexts and the development of life skills among Canadian junior national team biathletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 32(4), 392415. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2019.1570570

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kendellen, K., & Camiré, M. (2020). Going beyond the interview: Methodological considerations for “getting at” life skills transfer using a longitudinal integrated qualitative approach. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 12(1), 91107. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2019.1593231

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kramers, S., Camiré, M., & Bean, C. (2019). Profiling patterns of congruence in youth golf coaches’ life skills teaching. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 33(2), 218237. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2019.1596178

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawrason, S., Turnnidge, J., Martin, L., & Côté, J. (2018). A transformational coaching workshop for changing youth sport coaches’ behaviors: A pilot intervention study. The Sport Psychologist, 33(4), 304312. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2018-0172

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyle, J. (2003). Stimulated recall: A report on its use in naturalistic research. British Educational Research Journal, 29(6), 861878. https://doi.org/10.1080/0141192032000137349

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacDonald, D., Camiré, M., Erickson, K., & Santos, F. (2020). Positive youth development related athlete experiences and coach behaviors following a target coach education course. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 15(5), 621630. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954120942017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moon, J. (2004). A handbook of reflective and experiential learning: Theory and practice. Routledge Falmer.

  • National Plan of Ethics in Sport. (2015). Code of sports ethics. Portuguese Institute of Sports.

  • Paquette, K., & Trudel, P. (2018). Learner-centered coach education: Practical recommendations for coach development administrators. International Sport Coaching Journal, 5(2), 169175. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2017-0084

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paquette, K., Trudel, P., Duarte, T., & Cundari, G. (2019). Participating in a learner-centered coach education program: Composite vignettes of coaches’ and coach educators’ experiences. International Sport Coaching Journal, 6(3), 274284. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2018-0085

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pekrun, R.(2006). The control value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Resende, R., Sequeira, P., & Sarmento, H. (2016). Coaching and coach education in Portugal. International Sport Coaching Journal, 3(1), 178183. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2016-0038

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, F., Bean, C., Bean, C., Azevedo, N., Cardoso, A., Pereira, P., & Cruz, H. (2020). Moving from an implicit to an explicit approach of life skills development and transfer: The case of surfing in schools. SAGE Open, 10(2), 110. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020933316

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, F., Camiré, M., & Campos, H. (2018a). Youth sport coaches’ role in facilitating positive youth development in Portuguese field hockey. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 16(3), 221234. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2016.1187655

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, F., Camiré, M., & MacDonald, D. (2021). Coaching the coaches: A coach developer’s experiences creating and implementing a positive youth development coach education program. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 52(1), 127. https://doi.org/10.7352/IJSP.2021.52.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, F., Camiré, M., MacDonald, D., Campos, H., Conceição, M., & Silva, A. (2017). Youth sport coaches’ perspective on positive youth development and its worth in mainstream coach education courses. International Sport Coaching Journal, 4(1), 3846. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2016-0092

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, F., Camiré, M., MacDonald, D., Campos, H., Conceição, M., & Silva, A. (2019). Process and outcome evaluation of a positive youth development-focused coach education course. International Sport Coaching Journal, 6(1), 112. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2017-0101

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, F., Gould, D., & Strachan, L. (2018b). Research on positive youth development-focused coach education programs: Future pathways and applications. International Sport Coaching Journal, 6(1), 132138. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2018-0013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B., & McGannon, K. (2018). Developing rigor in qualitative research: Problems and opportunities within sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 101121. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2017.1317357

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spaaij, R., Knoppers, A., & Jeanes, R. (2020). “We want more diversity but. . .”: Resisting diversity in recreational sports clubs. Sport Management Review, 23(3), 363373. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2019.05.007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strachan, L., MacDonald, J., & Côté, J. (2016). Project SCORE!: Coaches’ perceptions of an online tool to promote positive youth development in sport. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 11(1), 108115. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954115624827

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stodter, A., & Cushion, C. (2019). Evidencing the impact of coaches’ learning: Changes in coaching knowledge and practice over time. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(18), 20862093. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1621045

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tufford, L., & Newman, P. (2012). Bracketing in qualitative research. Qualitative Social Work, 11(1), 8096. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325010368316

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turnnidge, J., & Côté, J. (2017). Transformational coaching workshop: Applying a person-centred approach to coach development programs. International Sport Coaching Journal, 4(3), 314325. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2017-0046

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vella, S., Oades, L., & Crowe, T. (2013). A pilot test of transformational leadership training for sports coaches: Impact on the developmental experiences of adolescent athletes. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 8(3), 513530. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.8.3.513

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watts, D., Cushion, C., & Cale, L. (2021). Exploring professional coach educators’ journeys and perceptions and understandings of learning. Sport, Education and Society. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2021.1887115

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiss, M.R., Stuntz, C.P., Bhalla, J.A., Bolter, N.D., & Price, M.S. (2013). ‘More than a game’: Impact of the first tee life skills programme on positive youth development: Project introduction and year 1 findings. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 5(2), 214244. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2012.712997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitley, M. (2021). Using behavioral economics to promote positive youth development through sport. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2021.1883783

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 914 914 366
Full Text Views 37 37 4
PDF Downloads 35 35 4