Fostering Psychosocial Characteristics Within an English Soccer Academy

in The Sport Psychologist
View More View Less
  • 1 Research Centre for Sport Coaching, Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom
  • | 2 Research institute for Sport and Exercise Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • | 3 Doncaster Rovers Football Club, Doncaster, United Kingdom
Restricted access

The possession of certain psychosocial characteristics can offer performance advantages in a range of domains. However, integrating a program to support the development of psychosocial characteristics is a lengthy process and involves context-specific knowledge and effective working relationships with stakeholders. The aim of this article is to present a real-life example of the design, delivery, and implementation of a theoretically informed psychosocial development program for players within an academy soccer setting to include player workshops, coach delivery, and ways to influence the environment. This multifaceted approach included formal and informal meetings, observations, coach education, and social media groups. Initial reflections suggested workshops are an effective method to “teach” some of the aspects within the program. Integrating coaches throughout design and implementation is recommended. Key stakeholders should consider investing time in education for coaches to develop strategies to foster psychosocial development in their players. Limitations and future recommendations are discussed.

  • Abbott, A., & Collins, D. (2004). Eliminating the dichotomy between theory and practice in talent identification and development: Considering the role of psychology. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(5), 395408. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410410001675324

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allen, M.S., Robson, D.A., Martin, L.J., & Laborde, S. (2020). Systematic review and meta-analysis of self-serving attribution biases in the competitive context of organized sport. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 46(7), 10271043. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167219893995

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andersen, M.B., Van, R.J.L., & Brewer, B.W. (2001). Sport psychology service delivery: Staying ethical while keeping loose. Professional Psychology, Research and Practice, 32(1), 1218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, A.G., Knowles Z., & Gilbourne, D. (2004). Reflective practice for sport psychologists: Concepts, models, practical implications, and thoughts on dissemination. The Sport Psychologist, 18(2), 188203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ashford, M., Abraham, A., & Poolton, J. (2020). A communal language for decision making in team invasion sports. International Sport Coaching Journal, 8(1), 122129. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2019-0062

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barker, S., & Winter, S. (2014). The practice of sport psychology: A youth coaches’ perspective. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 9(2), 379392. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.9.2.379

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, J.J., Hardy, L., & Beattie, S. (2013). Enhancing mental toughness and performance under pressure in elite young cricketers: A 2-year longitudinal intervention. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 2(4), 281297. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033129

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butler, R.J., & Hardy, L. (1992). The performance profile: Theory and application. The Sport Psychologist, 6, 253264. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.6.3.253

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Camiré, M. (2015). Reconciling competition and positive youth development in sport. STAPS, 109, 2539.

  • Cannon-Bowers, J.A., Salas, E., & Converse, S.A. (1993). Shared mental models in expert team decision making. In N.J. Castellan (Ed.), Individual and group decision making (pp. 221246). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christensen, M. (2009). “An eye for talent”: Talent identification and the “practical sense” of top-level soccer coaches. Sociology of Sport Journal, 26, 365382. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.26.3.365

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clement, D., & Shannon, V. (2009). The impact of a workshop on athletic training students’ sport psychology behaviours. The Sport Psychologist, 23(4), 504522.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, D., & MacNamara, A. (2012). The rocky road to the top: Why talent needs trauma. Sports Medicine, 42(11), 907914. https://doi.org/10.2165/11635140-000000000-00000 10.1007/bf03262302

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 4, 307323. https://doi.org/10.1260/174795409789623892

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crick, N.R., & Dodge, K.A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cropley, B., Hanton, S., Miles, A., & Niven, A. (2010). Exploring the relationship between effective and reflective practice in applied sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 24, 521541. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.24.4.521

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cropley, B., Miles, A., Hanton, S., & Niven, A. (2007). Improving the delivery of applied sport psychology support through reflective practice. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 475494. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.21.4.475

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cushion, C.J., & Jones, R.L. (2006). Power, discourse, and symbolic violence in professional youth soccer: The case of Albion Football Club. Sociology of Sport Journal, 23, 142161. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.23.2.142

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Danish, S.J. (1996). Interventions for enhancing adolescents’ life skills. The Humanistic Psychologist, 24, 365381. https://doi.org/10.1080/08873267.1996.9986864

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davids, K., & Araújo, D. (2010). The concept of ‘Organismic Asymmetry’ in sport science. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(6), 633640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2010.05.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deci, E.L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R.M. (2001). Extrinsic rewards, and intrinsic motivation in education: Reconsidered once again. Review of Educational Research, 71(1), 127. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543071001001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dohme, L.-C., Backhouse, S., Piggott, D., & Morgan, G. (2017). Categorising and defining popular psychological terms used within the youth athlete talent development literature: A systematic review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(1), 134163. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2016.1185451

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Durand-Bush, N., & Salmela, J. (2002). The development and maintenance of expert athletic performance: Perceptions of world and Olympic champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 154171. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200290103473

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elite Player Performance Plan (EPPP). (2011). Document prepared by the English Premier League.

  • Erikson, E. (1950). Childhood and society. Norton.

  • Fletcher, D., & Sarkar, M. (2012). A grounded theory of psychological resilience in Olympic champions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(5), 669678.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fletcher, D., & Sarkar, M. (2013). Psychological resilience: A review and critique of definitions, concepts, and theory. European Psychologist, 18(1), 1223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fletcher, D., & Sarkar, M. (2016). Mental fortitude training: An evidence-based approach to developing psychological resilience for sustained success. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 7(3), 135157. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2016.1255496

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foster, D., Maynard I., Butt, J., & Hays, K. (2016). Delivery of psychological skills training to youngsters. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(1), 6277. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2015.1063097

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fournier, J.F., Calmels, C., Durand‐Bush, N., & Salmela, J.H. (2005). Effects of a season‐long PST program on gymnastic performance and on psychological skill development. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 3(1), 5978. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2005.9671758

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gamble, R., Hill, D., & Parker, A. (2012). Revs and psychos: Role, impact and interaction of sport chaplains and sport psychologists within english premiership soccer. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 25(2), 249264. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2012.718313

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit.

  • Gledhill, A., Harwood, C., & Forsdyke, D. (2017). Psychosocial factors associated with talent development in football: A systematic review. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 31, 93112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.04.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gould, D., Diffenbach, K., & Moffet, A. (2002). Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 172204. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200290103482

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gould, D., & Nelepa, J. (2016). Mental development in the young athlete. In A.C. Colvin& J.N. Gladstone (Eds.), The youth tennis player: Injury prevention and treatment (pp. 3754), Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gross, J.J., & Thompsons, R.A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J.J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 324). The Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harter, S. (1999). The construction of self: A developmental perspective. The Guilford Press.

  • Harwood, C.G. (2008). Developmental consulting in a professional football academy: The 5Cs coaching efficacy program. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 109133. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.22.1.109

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harwood, C.G., Barker, J., & Anderson, R. (2015). Psychosocial development in youth soccer players: Assessing the effectiveness of the 5C’s intervention program. The Sport Psychologist, 29(4), 319334. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2014-0161

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henriksen, K., Stambulova, N., & Roessler, K.K. (2010). A holistic approach to athletic talent development environments: A successful sailing milieu. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 212222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.10.005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, A., MacNamara, A., & Collins, D. (2015). Psychobehaviorally based features of effective talent development in rugby union: A coach’s perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 29(3), 201212. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2014-0103

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holt, N.L., & Dunn, J.G.H. (2004). Toward a grounded theory of the psychosocial competencies and environmental conditions associated with soccer success. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 199219. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200490437949

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holt, N.L., Neely, K.C., Slater, L.G., Camiré, M., Côté, J., Fraser-Thomas, J., MacDonald, D., Strachan, L., & Tamminen, K.A. (2017). A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(1), 149. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2016.1180704

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horn, C., Gilbert, J., Gilbert, W., & Lewis, D. (2011). Psychological skills training with community college athletes: The UNIFORM approach. The Sport Psychologist, 25, 321340. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.25.3.321

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horn, T.S. (2004). Development Perspectives on self-development in children and adolescents. In M.R. Weiss (Ed.), Developmental sport and exercise psychology: A lifespan perspective (pp. 101143). Fitness Information Technology.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Council for Coaching Excellence, Association of Summer Olympic International Federations, & Leeds Metropolitan University. (2013). International sport coaching framework (version 1.2). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, U., & Andersen, M. (2019). On the Swedish road to becoming a professional practitioner in sport and exercise psychology: Students’ views, hopes, dreams, and worries. The Sport Psychologist, 33(1), 7583. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2017-0137

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, U., Andersson, K., & Fallby, J. (2011) Sport psychology consulting among Swedish premier soccer coaches. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 9(4), 308322. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2011.623455

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, M.I., & Lavallee, D. (2009). Exploring the life skills needs of British adolescent athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(1), 159167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.06.005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, R.L., Armour, K.M., & Potrac, P. (2004). Sports coaching cultures: From practice to theory. Routledge.

  • Jones, R.L., Armour, K.M., & Potrac, P. (2013). Constructing expert knowledge: A case study of a top-level professional soccer coach. Sport Education and Society, 8, 213229. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573320309254

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kipp, L.E. (2018). Developmental considerations for working with young athletes. In C.J. Knight, C.G. Harwood, & D. Gould (Eds.), Sport psychology for young athletes. Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knowles, Z., Gilbourne, D., Borrie, A., & Neville, A. (2001) Developing the reflective sports coach: A study exploring the processes of reflective practice within a higher education coaching programme. Reflective Practice, 2, 185207. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623940123820

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knowles, Z., Tyler G., Gilbourne, D., & Eubank, M. (2006). Reflecting on reflection: Exploring the practice of sports coaching graduates. Reflective Practice, 7(2), 163179. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623940600688423

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lacroix, C., Camire, M., & Trudel, P. (2008). High school coaches’ characteristics and their perspectives on the purpose of sport participation. International Journal of Coaching Science, 2, 2342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lara-Berical, S., & Mallett, C.J. (2016). The practice and developmental pathways of professional and Olympic serial winning coaches. International Sports Coaching Journal, 3(3), 221239. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2016-0083

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larsen, C. (2013). ‘Made in Denmark’—Ecological perspective on applied sport psychology and talent development in Danish professional football [PhD Thesis]. University of Southern Denmark.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larsen, C.H., Alfermann, D., Henriksen, K., & Christensen, M.K. (2013). Successful talent development in Soccer: The characteristics of the environment. Sport Exercise and Performance Psychology, 2, 190206. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031958

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacNamara, A., Button, A., & Collins, D. (2010a). The role of psychological characteristics in facilitating the pathway to elite performance. Part 1: Identifying mental skills and behaviours. The Sport Psychologist, 24, 5273. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.24.1.52

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacNamara, A., Button, A., & Collins, D. (2010b). The role of psychological characteristics in facilitating the pathway to elite performance Part 2: Examining environmental and stage-related differences in skills and behaviours. The Sport Psychologist, 24, 7496. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.24.1.74

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manley, A., Roderick, M., & Parker, A. (2016). Disciplinary mechanisms and the discourse of identity: The creation of ‘silence’ in an elite sports academy. Culture and Organization, 22(3), 221244. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759551.2016.1160092

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, D.J., Garske, J.P., & Davis, M.K. (2000). Reflection of the therapeutic alliance with outcome and other variables: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 438450. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.24.1.74

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martindale, R.J.J., & Mortimer, P. (2011). Talent development environments: Key considerations for effective practice. In D. Collins, A. Button, & H. Richards (Eds.), Performance psychology: A practitioner’s guide (pp. 6584). Elsevier.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCallister, S.G., Blinde, E.M., & Weiss, W.M. (2000). Teaching values and implementing philosophies: Dilemmas of the youth sport coach. Physical Educator, 57(1), 3545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mellalieu, S.D. (2017). Sport psychology consulting in professional rugby union in the United Kingdom. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 8(2), 109120. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2017.1299061

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mesquita, I., Ribeiro, J., Santos, S., & Morgan, K. (2014). Coach learning and coach education: Portuguese expert coaches’ perspective. The Sport Psychologist, 28(2), 124136. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2011-0117

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, D.T., & Ross, M. (1975). Self-serving biases in the attribution of causality: Fact or fiction? Psychological Bulletin, 82, 213225. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076486

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, P.S., & Kerr, G.A. (2002). Conceptualising excellence: Past, present, and future. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 140155. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200290103464

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mills, A., Butt, J., Maynard, I., & Harwood, C. (2012). Identifying factors perceived to influence the development of elite youth football academy players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(15), 15931604. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.710753

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mills, A., Butt, J., Maynard, I., & Harwood, C. (2014a). Toward an understanding of optimal development environments within elite English soccer academies. The Sport Psychologist, 28, 137150. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2013-0018

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mills, A., Butt, J., Maynard, I., & Harwood, C. (2014b). Examining the development environments of elite English football academies: The players’ perspective. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 9, 14571472. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.9.6.1457

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, T. (2015). Identity in elite youth professional football [Liverpool: Unpublished PhD Thesis]. Liverpool John Moores University.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, Z.E. (2003). Ethical dilemmas in sport psychology: Discussion and recommendations for Practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34, 601610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morgan, G., Muir, B., & Abraham, A. (2014). Systematic observation. In L. Nelson, R. Groom, & P. Potrac (Eds.), Research methods in sports coaching (pp. 123–131). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203797549

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morley, D., Morgan, G., McKenna, J., & Nicholls, A.R. (2014). Developmental contexts and features of elite academy football players: Coach and player perspectives. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 9(1), 217232. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.9.1.217

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muir, B. (2012). Using video and the coaching practice planning and reflective framework to facilitate high performance coaches development. Paper presented at the UK Sport World Class Performance Conference.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Musculus, L., & Lobinger, B.H. (2018). Psychological characteristics in talented soccer players—Recommendations on how to improve coaches’ assessment. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 16. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00041

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nicholls, J.G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Harvard University Press.

  • North, J. (2017). Sport coaching research and practice: Ontology, interdisciplinarity, and critical realism. Routledge.

  • Orlick, T., & Partington, J. (1998). Mental links to excellence. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 105130. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2.2.105

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pain, M.A., & Harwood, C.G. (2004) Knowledge and perceptions of sport psychology within English soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22(9), 813826. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410410001716670

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence: An essay on the construction of formal operational structures. Basic.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pierce, S., Gould, D., Cowburn, I., & Driska, A. (2016). Understanding the process of psychological development in youth athletes attending an intensive wrestling camp. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 8(4), 332351. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2016.1176067

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pineschi, G., & Di Pietro, A. (2013). Anxiety management through psychophysiological techniques: Relaxation and psyching-up in sport. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 4(3), 181190. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2013.820247

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Potrac, P., Jones, R.L., Gilbourne, D., & Nelson, L. (2012). ‘Handshakes, BBQs, and bullets’: Self-interest, shame and regret in football coaching. Sports Coaching Review, 1(2), 7992. https://doi.org/10.1080/21640629.2013.768418

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ravizza, K. (2006). Increasing awareness for sports performance. In J.M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (pp. 228239). McGraw-Hill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rongen, F., McKenna, J., Cobley, S., Tee, J.C., & Till, K. (2020). Psychosocial outcomes associated with soccer academy involvement: Longitudinal comparisons against aged-matched school pupils. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(11–12), 13871398. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1778354

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rongen, F., McKenna, J., Cobley, S., & Till, K. (2018). Are youth sport talent identification and development systems necessary and healthy? Sports Medicine—Open, 4, 18. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.18.2.204

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos F., Corte-Real, N., Cláudia Dias L.R., Martinek, T.J., & Fonseca, A. (2018). Coaching effectiveness within competitive youth football: Youth football coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions and practices. Sports Coaching Review, 8(2), 172193. https://doi.org/10.1080/21640629.2018.1459356

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sharp L., Woodcock, C., Holland M.J., Cumming, J., & Duda, J.L. (2013). A qualitative evaluation of the effectiveness of a mental skills training program for youth athletes. The Sport Psychologist, 27(3), 219232. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.27.3.219

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmons, C. (2004). Fast tracking and player development. Insight, 3(7), 2425.

  • The Football Association. (2019). The playing and coaching philosophy of England teams [online]. http://www.thefa.com/learning/england-dna

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • The Premier League. (2011). The elite player performance plan, the premier league.

  • Till, K., Eisenmann, J., Emmonds, S., Jones, B., Mitchell, T., Cowburn, I.H., Tee, J., Holmes, N., & Lloyd, R. (2020). A coaching session framework to facilitate long-term athletic development. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 43(3), 4355. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0000000000000558

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tod, D., & Andersen, M.B. (2005). Success in sport psych: Effective sport psychologists. In S. Murphy (Ed.), The sport psych handbook (pp. 305315). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, L.V., Hardy, J., & Hardy, L. (2017). Big hitters: Important factors characterising team effectiveness in professional cricket. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article 1140. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01140

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiss, M.R., Stuntz, C.P., Bhalla, J.A., Bolter, N.D., & Price, M. (2013). ‘More than a game’: Impact of The First Tee life skills programme on positive youth development: Project introduction and Year 1 findings. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 5(2), 214244. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2012.712997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, M.A., Ford, P.R., & Drust, B. (2020). Talent identification and development in soccer since the millennium, Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(11–12), 11991210. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1766647

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zakrajsek, R.A., Lauer, E.E., & Bodey, K.J. (2017). Integrating mental skills and strategies into youth sport training: A tool for coaches. International Sport Coaching Journal, 4(1), 7689. https://doi.org/10.1123/iscj.2016-0078

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zakrajsek, R.A., Martin, S.B., & Zizzi, S.J. (2011). American high school football coaches’ attitudes toward sport psychology consultation and intentions to use sport psychology services. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 6(3), 461478. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.6.3.461

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1560 1560 473
Full Text Views 61 61 10
PDF Downloads 69 69 17