Too Many Cooks, Not Enough Gourmets: Examining Provision and Use of Feedback for the Developing Athlete

in The Sport Psychologist
View More View Less
  • 1 Grey Matters Performance Ltd., Stratford upon Avon, United Kingdom
  • | 2 School of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Science and Health, Dublin City University, Dublin, United Kingdom
  • | 3 Moray House School of Education and Sport, University of Edinburgh, Holyrood Campus, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $70.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $94.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $134.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $178.00

Feedback from coaches and other stakeholders is well established as having a significant impact on the development of performance. This study investigated perceptions of the feedback process and the sense-making of athletes transitioning to elite sport. Specifically, the aims were to (a) investigate the number of feedback providers young players reported through their talent development journey, (b) understand the degree of coherence that players perceived from this feedback, and (c) explore the sense-making process of individual players by understanding their decision criteria. The findings suggest that pathway athletes were offered an excess of feedback from multiple sources, often incoherently. Yet, players lacked an appropriate sense-making process to appreciate, critically reflect on, and apply feedback. Given the implications for talent development, we offer suggestions for the coach and system to optimize feedback processes and develop gourmet consumers.

  • Abraham, A., & Collins, D. (2011). Taking the next step: Ways forward for coaching science. Quest, 63(4), 366384. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2011.10483687

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ajjawi, R., Boud, D., Henderson, M., & Molloy, E. (2019). Improving feedback research in naturalistic settings. In M. Henderson, R. Ajjawi, D. Boud, & E. Molloy (Eds.), The impact of feedback in higher education: Improving assessment outcomes for learners (pp. 245265). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25112-3_14

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, D.I., Magill, R.A., Mayo, A.M., & Steel, K.A. (2020). Enhancing motor skill acquisition with augmented feedback. In N.J. Hodges & A.M. Williams (Eds.), Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice (3r ed., pp. 119140). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351189750

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, J., Wilson, S., Johnston, K., Dehghansai, N., Koenigsberg, A., de Vegt, S., & Wattie, N. (2020). Talent research in sport 1990–2018: A scoping review. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 607710. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.607710

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartulovic, D., Young, B.W., & Baker, J. (2017). Self-regulated learning predicts skill group differences in developing athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 31, 6169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.04.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjørndal, C.T., & Ronglan, L.T. (2018). Orchestrating talent development: Youth players’ developmental experiences in scandinavian team sports. Sports Coaching Review, 7(1), 122. https://doi.org/10.1080/21640629.2017.1317172

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2019). Reflecting on reflexive thematic analysis. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 11(4), 589597. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2019.1628806

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2021). One size fits all? What counts as quality practice in (reflexive) thematic analysis? Qualitative Research in Psychology, 18(3), 328352. https://doi.org/10.1080/14780887.2020.1769238

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carless, D. (2019). Feedback loops and the longer-term: Towards feedback spirals. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 44(5), 705714. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2018.1531108

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carless, D., & Boud, D. (2018). The development of student feedback literacy: Enabling uptake of feedback. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(8), 13151325. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2018.1463354

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carpentier, J., & Mageau, G.A. (2013). When change-oriented feedback enhances motivation, well-being and performance: A look at autonomy-supportive feedback in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(3), 423435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clarke, V., & Braun, V. (2016). Thematic analysis. In E. Lyons & A. Coyle (Eds.), Analysing qualitative data in psychology (pp. 84103). Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Claxton, G. (2014). School as an epistemic apprenticeship: The case of building learning power. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 37(2), 227247. https://doi.org/10.1080/02103702.2014.929863

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, D., & MacNamara, Á. (2017). Talent development: A practitioner guide. Routledge.

  • Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing ground theory (3rd ed.). Sage.

  • Curran, O., MacNamara, A., & Passmore, D. (2019). What about the girls? Exploring the gender data gap in talent development. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 1, 3. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2019.00003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cushion, C.J., Armour, K.M., & Jones, R.L. (2006). Locating the coaching process in practice: Models ‘for’ and ‘of’ coaching. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 11(1), 8399. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408980500466995

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ericsson, K.A. (2020). Towards a science of the acquisition of expert performance in sports: Clarifying the differences between deliberate practice and other types of practice. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38(2), 159176. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2019.1688618

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ericsson, K.A., Krampe, R.T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363406. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faulkner, G., & Sparkes, A. (1999). Exercise as therapy for schizophrenia: An ethnographic study. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 21(1), 5269. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.21.1.52

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Finn, J., & McKenna, J. (2010). Coping with academy-to-first-team transitions in elite English male team sports: The coaches’ perspective. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 5(2), 257279. https://doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.5.2.257

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giacobbi, P.R., Poczwardowski, A., & Hager, P. (2005). A pragmatic research philosophy for sport and exercise psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 19(1), 1831. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.19.1.18

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grecic, D., & Collins, D. (2013). The epistemological chain: Practical applications in sports. Quest, 65(2), 151168. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2013.773525

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Groom, R., Cushion, C., & Nelson, L. (2011). The delivery of video-based performance analysis by England youth soccer coaches: Towards a grounded theory. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23(1), 1632. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2010.511422

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haimovitz, K., & Dweck, C.S. (2016). What predicts children’s fixed and growth intelligence mind-sets? Not their parents’ views of intelligence but their parents’ views of failure. Psychological Science, 27(6), 859869. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797616639727

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harwood, C.G., & Knight, C.J. (2015). Parenting in youth sport: A position paper on parenting expertise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 16, 2435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.03.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81112. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henderson, M., Ajjawi, R., Boud, D., & Molloy, E. (2019). Identifying feedback that has impact. In M. Henderson, R. Ajjawi, D. Boud, & E. Molloy (Eds.), The impact of feedback in higher education: Improving assessment outcomes for learners (pp. 1534). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25112-3_2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henriksen, K., Larsen, C.H., & Christensen, M.K. (2014). Looking at success from its opposite pole: The case of a talent development golf environment in Denmark. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12(2), 134149. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2013.853473

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henriksen, K., Stambulova, N., & Roessler, K.K. (2010). Holistic approach to athletic talent development environments: A successful sailing milieu. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11(3), 212222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.10.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, R.A., Mahoney, J.W., & Gucciardi, D.F. (2014). On the transition into elite rugby league: Perceptions of players and coaching staff. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 3(1), 2845. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jowett, S. (2017). Coaching effectiveness: The coach–athlete relationship at its heart. Sport Psychology, 16, 154158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.05.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jowett, S., & Timson-Katchis, M. (2005). Social networks in sport: Parental influence on the coach-athlete relationship. The Sport Psychologist, 19(3), 267287. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.19.3.267

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kidman, L. (2010). Athlete-centred coaching: Developing decision makers. IPC Print Resources.

  • Klein, G., Moon, B., & Hoffman, R.R. (2006). Making sense of sensemaking 2: A macrocognitive model. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21(5), 8892. https://doi.org/10.1109/MIS.2006.100

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klein, G., Phillips, J.K., Rall, E.L., & Peluso, D.A. (2007). A data-frame theory of sensemaking. In Expertise out of context: Proceedings of the sixth international conference on naturalistic decision making. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martindale, R.J.J., Collins, D., & Abraham, A. (2007). Effective talent development: The elite coach perspective in UK sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19(2), 187206. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200701188944

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, R.J., Farrow, D., & Hattie, J.A.C. (2020a). An exploratory investigation into the reception of verbal and video feedback provided to players in an Australian Football League club. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 16(1), 181191. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954120951080

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mason, R.J., Farrow, D., & Hattie, J.A.C. (2020b). Sports coaches’ knowledge and beliefs about the provision, reception, and evaluation of verbal feedback [Original Research]. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 571552. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.571552

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCaslin, M. (2012). Pragmatism. In L.M. Given (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (pp. 672675). SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412963909

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Middlemas, S., & Harwood, C. (2018). No place to hide: Football players’ and coaches’ perceptions of the psychological factors influencing video feedback. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 30(1), 2344. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2017.1302020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molloy, E., Noble, C., & Ajjawi, R. (2019). Attending to emotion in feedback. In M. Henderson, R. Ajjawi, D. Boud, & E. Molloy (Eds.), The impact of feedback in higher education: Improving assessment outcomes for learners (pp. 83105). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25112-3_6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morris, R., Tod, D., & Eubank, M. (2017). From youth team to first team: An investigation into the transition experiences of young professional athletes in soccer. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15(5), 523539. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2016.1152992

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morris, R., Tod, D., & Oliver, E. (2016). An investigation into stakeholders’ perceptions of the youth-to-senior transition in professional soccer in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(4), 375391. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2016.1162222

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neelen, M., & Kirschner, P. (2020). Evidence-informed learning design: Use evidence to create training which improves performance. KoganPage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nowell, L.S., Norris, J.M., White, D.E., & Moules, N.J. (2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16(1), 160940691773384. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917733847

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olsson, C., Cruickshank, A., & Collins, D. (2017). Making mentoring work: The need for rewiring epistemology. Quest, 69(1), 5064. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2016.1152194

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pankhurst, A., Collins, D., & Macnamara, Á. (2013). Talent development: Linking the stakeholders to the process. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(4), 370380. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.733821

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Partington, M., & Cushion, C. (2013). An investigation of the practice activities and coaching behaviors of professional top-level youth soccer coaches. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23(3), 374382. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2011.01383.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards, P., Mascarenhas, D.R.D., & Collins, D. (2009). Implementing reflective practice approaches with elite team athletes: Parameters of success. Reflective Practice, 10(3), 353363. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623940903034721

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Røynesdal, Ø., Toering, T., & Gustafsson, H. (2018). Understanding players’ transition from youth to senior professional football environments: A coach perspective. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 13(1), 2637. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954117746497

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salmoni, A.W., Schmidt, R.A., & Walter, C.B. (1984). Knowledge of results and motor learning: A review and critical reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 355386. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.355

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B. (2018). Generalizability in qualitative research: Misunderstandings, opportunities and recommendations for the sport and exercise sciences. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 10(1), 137149. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2017.1393221

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, B., & McGannon, K.R. (2018). Developing rigor in qualitative research: Problems and opportunities within sport and exercise psychology. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(1), 101121. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2017.1317357

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stambulova, N.B., Pehrson, S., & Olsson, K. (2017). Phases in the junior-to-senior transition of Swedish ice hockey players: From a conceptual framework to an empirical model. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 12(2), 231244. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954117694928

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stambulova, N.B., Ryba, T.V., & Henriksen, K. (2021). Career development and transitions of athletes: The International Society Of Sport Psychology Position Stand Revisited. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 19(4), 524550. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2020.1810865

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tai, J., Ajjawi, R., Boud, D., Dawson, P., & Panadero, E. (2018). Developing evaluative judgement: Enabling students to make decisions about the quality of work. Higher Education, 76(3), 467481. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-017-0220-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, J., & Collins, D. (2019). Shoulda, coulda, didnae—Why don’t high-potential players make it? The Sport Psychologist, 33(2), 8596. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2017-0153

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, J., & Collins, D. (2020). The highs and the lows—Exploring the nature of optimally impactful development experiences on the talent pathway. The Sport Psychologist, 34(4), 319328. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2020-0034

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, J., & Collins, D. (2021a). Getting in the way: Investigating barriers to optimizing talent development experience. Journal of Expertise, 4(3), 315332. https://journalofexpertise.org/articles/volume4_issue3/JoE_4_3_Taylor_Collins.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, J., & Collins, D. (2021b). Navigating the winds of change on the smooth sea—The interaction of feedback and emotional disruption on the talent pathway. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2021.1894505

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toering, T.T., Elferink-Gemser, M.T., Jordet, G., & Visscher, C. (2009). Self-regulation and performance level of elite and non-elite youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(14), 15091517. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903369919

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tracy, S.J. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight “Big-Tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 16(10), 837851. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800410383121

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van De Ridder, J.M.M., Stokking, K.M., McGaghie, W.C., & Ten Cate, O.T.J. (2008). What is feedback in clinical education? Medical Education, 42(2), 189197. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02973.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webb, V., Collins, D., & Cruickshank, A. (2016). Aligning the talent pathway: Exploring the role and mechanisms of coherence in development. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(19), 17991807. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1139162

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winstone, N., & Carless, D. (2020). Designing effective feedback processes in higher education. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351115940

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 20 20 20
Full Text Views 1 1 1
PDF Downloads 2 2 2