The Effects of an Exploratory Mindfulness Intervention on Collegiate Performance

in The Sport Psychologist

Click name to view affiliation

Maya TrajkovskiDepartment of Kinesiology, California State University, Chico, CA, USA

Search for other papers by Maya Trajkovski in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
and
Aubrey NewlandDepartment of Kinesiology, California State University, Chico, CA, USA

Search for other papers by Aubrey Newland in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Although mindfulness has been suggested as a means to improve athletes’ performance, few studies have connected changes in mindfulness with improved performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of an exploratory mindfulness intervention (MI) on performance using a mixed methods design. Thirty-four female National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) soccer athletes participated in a 12-week MI. Using the Mindfulness Inventory for Sport, athletic performance and self-perceived ability during the first three games of the season compared to the final three games of the season (August–November 2019) were analyzed using paired t tests. Postintervention focus groups explored athletes’ perceptions of the MI on performance. Mindfulness, shots per game, and self-perceived athletic ability increased after the MI. Six themes emerged from the focus groups: awareness, increased focus, letting-go mentality, skill acquisition, self-compassion, and team cohesion. Coaches and sport psychology practitioners may consider implementing similar MI to improve performance and overall athletic experiences.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Baltzell, A., & Akhtar, V.L. (2014). Mindfulness meditation training for sport (MMTS) intervention: Impact of MMTS with division I female athletes. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 2(2), 160173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baltzell, A., Caraballo, N., Chipman, K., & Hayden, L. (2014). A qualitative study of the mindfulness meditation training for sport: Division I female soccer players’ experience. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 8(3), 221244. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2014-0030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baltzell, A., Chipman, K., Hayden, L., & Bowman, C. (2015). Qualitative study of MMTS: Coaches’ experience. Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research, 7(3), 520.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baltzell, A., & Summers, J. (2017). The power of mindfulness: Mindfulness meditation training in sport (MMTS). Springer.

  • Baykose, N., & Çelik, B. (2021). The psychometric properties of mindfulness inventory in sport and examination of its measurement invariance. Propósitos y Representaciones, 9, e1168.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernier, M., Thienot, E., Pelosse, E., & Fournier, J.F. (2014). Effects and underlying processes of a mindfulness-based intervention with young elite figure skaters: Two case studies. Sport Psychologist, 28(3), 302315. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2013-0006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birrer, D., Röthlin, P., & Morgan, G. (2012). Mindfulness to enhance athletic performance: Theoretical considerations and possible impact mechanisms. Mindfulness, 3(3), 235246. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0109-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blouin-Hudon, E.-M.C., & Pychyl, T.A. (2016). A mental imagery intervention to increase future self-continuity and reduce procrastination: Future self, imagery, and procrastination. Applied Psychology, 66(2), 326352. https://doi.org/10/1111/apps.12088

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bornn, L., Cervone, L.D., & Fernandez, J. (2018). Soccer analytics: Unravelling the complexity of “the beautiful game.” Significance, 15(3), 2629. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-9713.2018.01146.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2012). Thematic analysis. In H. Cooper (Ed.), The handbook of research methods in psychology. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/13620-004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bühlmayer, L., Birrer, D., Röthlin, P., Faude, O., & Donath, L. (2017). Effects of mindfulness practice on performance-relevant parameters and performance outcomes in sports: A meta-analytical review. Sports Medicine, 47(11), 23092321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0752-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carraça, B., Serpa, S., Rosado, A., Guerrero, J.P., & Magalhaes, C. (2019). Mindfull compassion training on elite soccer: Effects, roles and associations on flow, psychological distress and though suppression. Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology, 14(2), 141149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carraça, B., Serpa, S., Rosado, A., & Palmi, J. (2018). The mindfulness-based soccer program (MBSoccerP): Effects on elite athletes. Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte, 18(3), 6285. https://revistas.um.es/cpd/article/view/323541

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carron, A.V., Colman, M.M., Wheeler, J., & Stevens, D. (2002). Cohesion and performance in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24, 168188. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.24.2.168

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). L. Erlbaum Associates.

  • De Petrillo, L., Kaufman, K., Glass, C., & Arnkoff, D. (2009). Mindfulness for long-distance runners: An open trial using mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE). Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 357376. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.357

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Demarzo, M., Oliveira, J.M.R., Silva, A.D.F., Lessa-Moreno, I., Barcelo, A., & Garcia-Campayo, J. (2015). Mindfulness applied to high performance athletes: A case report. Actas Espanholas de Psiquiatria, 43(1), 190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DiBernardo, R. (2018). Implementation and impact of the mindfulness meditation training for sport (MMTS) 2.0 protocol with a division III women’s college basketball team and coaching staff [Doctoral dissertation]. Boston University Theses & Dissertations. https://hdl.handle.net/2144/30691

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ely, F.O., Jenny, O., & Munroe-Chandler, K.J. (2021). How intervention research designs may broaden the research-to-practice gap in sport psychology. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 12(2), 101113. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2020.1798573

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fredrickson, B.L., Boulton, A.J., Firestine, A.M., Van Cappellen, P., Algoe, S.B., Brantley, M.M., Kim, S.L., Brantley, J., & Salzberg, S. (2017). Positive emotion correlates of meditation practice: A comparison of mindfulness meditation and loving-kindness meditation. Mindfulness, 8(6), 16231633. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0735-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, M., Gano-Overway, L., Guivernau, M., Kim, M.-S., & Newton, M. (2019). A coach’s guide to maximizing the youth sport experience: Work hard, be kind. Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, F.L., & Moore, Z.E. (2004). A mindfulness–acceptance–commitment-based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behavior Therapy, 35(4), 707723. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80016-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, F.L., & Moore, Z.E. (2007). The psychology of enhancing human performance. The mindfulness–acceptance–commitment approach (MAC). Springer.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hafenbrack, A.C., Kinias, Z., & Barsade, S.G. (2014). Debiasing the mind through meditation: Mindfulness and the sunk-cost bias. Psychological Science, 25(2), 369376. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613503853

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardy, L., Jones, G., & Gould, D. (1996). Understanding psychological preparation for sport: Theory and practice of elite performers. Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holmes, P.S., & Collins, D.J. (2001). The PETTLEP approach to motor imagery: A functional equivalence model for sport psychologists. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, 6083. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200109339004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jekauc, D., Kittler, C., & Schlagheck, M. (2017). Effectiveness of mindfulness-based intervention for athletes. Psychology, 8, 113. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2017.81001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144156. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpg016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kabat-Zinn, J., Beall, B., & Rippe, J. (1985). A systematic mental training program based on mindfulness meditation to optimize performance in collegiate and Olympic rowers. Poster presented at the World Congress in Sport Psychology.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karlin, D. (2018). Mindfulness in the workplace. Strategic HR Review, 7(2), 7680. https://doi.org/10.1108/SHR-11-2017-0077

  • Kaufman, K.A., & Glass, C.R. (2006). Mindful sport performance enhancement: A treatment manual for archers and golfers. Unpublished manuscript. The Catholic University of America.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaufman, K.A., Glass, C.R., & Arnkoff, D.B. (2009). Evaluation of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sports Psychology, 4, 334356. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.334

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lago-Peñas, C., Lago-Ballesteros, J., Dellal, A., & Gomez, M. (2010). Game-related statistics that discriminated winning, drawing and losing teams from the Spanish soccer league. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 9(2), 288293. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3761743/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lutkenhouse, J.M. (2007). The case of Jenny: A freshman collegiate athlete experiencing performance dysfunction. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 1, 166180. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.1.2.166

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, K.A., Moritz, S.E., & Hall, C.R. (1999). Imagery use in sport: A literature review and applied model. The Sport Psychologist, 13(3), 245268. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.13.3.245

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McHale, I.G., Scarf, P.A., & Folker, D.E. (2012). On the development of a soccer player performance rating system for the English Premier League. Informs Journal on Applied Analytics, 42(4), 329420. https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.1110.0589

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mizuguchi, N., Nakata, H., Uchida, Y., & Kanosue, K. (2012). Motor imagery and sport performance. Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine, 1(1), 103111. https://doi.org/10.7600/jpfsm.1.103

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mosewich, A.D., Crocker, P.R.E., & Kowalski, K.C. (2013). Managing injury and other setbacks in sport: Experiences of (and resources for) high performance women athletes. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise, and Health, 6(2), 182204. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2013.766810

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mosewich, A.D., Kowalski, K.C., Sabiston, C.M., Sedgwick, W.A., & Tracy, J.L. (2011). Self-compassion: A potential resource for young women athletes. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33, 103123. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.33.1.103

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neff, K.D., & Germer, C.K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 2844. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21923

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neff, K.D., Kirkpatrick, K., & Rude, S.S. (2007). Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 139154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2006.03.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Larson, J., & Grayson, C. (1999). Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 10611072. https://doi/org/10.1037//0022-3514.77.5.1061

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norouzi, E., Hossini, R.N.S., Afroozeh, M.S., Vaezmosavi, M., Gerber, M., Puehse, U., & Brand, S. (2019). Examining the effectiveness of a PERRLEP imagery intervention on the football skill performance of novice athletes. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 14(1), Article 20180010. https://doi.org/10.1515/jirspa-2018-0010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piasecki, P., Loughead, T.M., Paradis, K, & Munroe-Chandler, K. (2021). Using a personal-disclosure mutual-sharing approach to deliver a team-based mindfulness meditation program to enhance cohesion. The Sport Psychologist, 35(1), 2229. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2019-0116

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Post, P., Young, G., & Simpson, D. (2018). The effects of a PETTLEP imagery intervention on learners’ coincident anticipation timing performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 30(1), 204221. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2017.1363320

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Quinton, M., Cumming, J., Gary, R., Geeson, J., Cooper, A., Crowley, H., & Williams, S. (2014). A PETTLEP imagery intervention with young athletes. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 9(1), 4759. https://doi.org/10.1515/jirspa-2014-0003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Röthlin, P., Birrer, D., Horvath, S., & Grosse Holtforth, M. (2016). Psychological skills training and a mindfulness-based intervention to enhance functional athletic performance: Design of a randomized controlled trial using ambulatory assessment. BMC Psychology, 4(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-016-0147-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sappington, R., & Longshore, K. (2015). Systematically reviewing the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for enhances athletic performance. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 9, 232262. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2014-0017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwanhausser, L. (2009). Application of the mindfulness–acceptance–commitment (MAC) protocol with an adolescent springboard diver. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 377395. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.377

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scott-Hamilton, J., & Schutte, N.S. (2015). The role of adherence in the effects of a mindfulness intervention for competitive athletes: Changes in mindfulness, flow, pessimism, and anxiety. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 10, 99117. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2015-0020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapiro, S.L., Carlson, L.E., Astin, J.A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373386. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20237

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, D., Wright, C., Allsopp, A., & Westhead, H. (2007). It’s all in the mind: PETTLEP-based imagery and sports performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19, 8092. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200600944132

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, D., Wright, C.J., & Cantwell, C. (2008). Beating the bunker: The effect of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79, 385391. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2008.10599502

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thienot, E., Jackson, B., Dimmock, J., Grove, J.R., Bernier, M., & Fournier, J.F. (2014). Development and preliminary validation of the mindfulness inventory for sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 7280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.10.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, R.W., Kaufman, K.A., De Petrillo, L.A., Glass, C.R., & Arnkoff, D.B. (2011). One year follow-up of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) with archers, golfers, and runners. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5, 99116. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.5.2.99.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiller-Abels, K., & Moore, E.W. (2018). Initial development and assessment of the soccer competence scale. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 89(Suppl. 1), A-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2018.1450043#2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, C., Zhang, S., Calvo, A.L., & Cui, Y. (2018). Chinese soccer association super league, 2012-2017: Key performance indicators in balance games. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 18(4), 645656. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2018.1509254

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 638 638 132
Full Text Views 32 32 7
PDF Downloads 43 43 10