Exploring the Implementation and Practices of the Parent–Coach Dual Role

Click name to view affiliation

Mia KurtzFavero School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University at Kingston, Kingston, ON, Canada

Search for other papers by Mia KurtzFavero in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0009-0000-1865-0915 *
,
Alex Murata School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University at Kingston, Kingston, ON, Canada

Search for other papers by Alex Murata in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1088-6354
,
Niël Strydom School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University at Kingston, Kingston, ON, Canada

Search for other papers by Niël Strydom in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0438-661X
,
Tiffany Tse School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University at Kingston, Kingston, ON, Canada

Search for other papers by Tiffany Tse in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Guilherme H. Costa School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University at Kingston, Kingston, ON, Canada

Search for other papers by Guilherme H. Costa in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Jean Côté School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University at Kingston, Kingston, ON, Canada

Search for other papers by Jean Côté in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3242-599X
Restricted access

Previous research looking into youth sport coaching indicates that a majority of coaches may also be a parent to an athlete on their team. While previous studies have also sought to understand how being a parent–coach might affect parents’ relationships with their own child(ren), little work appears to explore how occupying this role might affect an individual’s ability to remain effective as a coach. As such, 14 parent–coaches were interviewed to examine how they perceived their dual role to influence their coaching effectiveness and to hear what strategies they used to remain effective. Interviews were analyzed thematically, and findings indicated that parent–coaches have few formalized resources to aid them in navigating the issues associated with their challenging dual-role position. More support would be welcomed by this population to improve their effectiveness and to ensure that all developing athletes in their care continue to have positive experiences within the youth sport environment.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Alsaawi, A. (2014). A critical review of qualitative interviews. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 3(4), 149156. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2819536

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Álvarez, E., Márquez, S., Salguero, A., & Molinero, O. (2009). Reasons for dropout in youth soccer: A comparison with other team sports. Motricidad. European Journal of Human Movement, 22, 2130. https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=274219861002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrews, T. (2012). What is social constructionism? Grounded Theory Review, 11(1), 3946.

  • Balyi, I., Way, R., & Higgs, C. (2013). Physical literacy. In I. Balyi, R. Way, & C. Higgs, Long-term athlete development (pp. 516). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Basil, M. (2011). Use of photography and video in observational research. Qualitative Market Research, 14(3), 246257. https://doi.org/10.1108/13522751111137488

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bean, C.N., Fortier, M., Post, C., & Chima, K. (2014). Understanding how organized youth sport may be harming individual players within the family unit: A literature review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(10), 1022610268. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph111010226

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bennie, A. (2011). Coaching and adherence issues in youth sport. In S. Georgakis & K. Russell (Eds.), Youth sport in Australia (pp. 211228). Sydney University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77101.

  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2021). Thematic analysis: A practical guide. SAGE Publications.

  • Braun, V., Clarke, V., Hayfield, N., & Terry, G. (2019). Thematic analysis. In P. Liamputtong (Ed.), Handbook of research methods in health social sciences (pp. 843860). Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burr, V., & Dick, P. (2017). Social constructionism. In B. Gough (Ed.), The Palgrave handbook of critical social psychology (pp. 5980). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Catania, J.A. (1999). A framework for conceptualizing reporting bias and its antecedents in interviews assessing human sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 36(1), 2538. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499909551964

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christofferson, J., & Strand, B. (2016). Mandatory parent education programs can create positive youth sport experiences. Strategies, 29(6), 814. https://doi.org/10.1080/08924562.2016.1231099

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 4(3), 307323. https://doi.org/10.1260/174795409789623892

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Côté, J., Murata, A., & Martin, L.J. (2022). The personal and social development of children in sport. In P.K. Smith & C.H. Hart (Eds.), The Wiley‐Blackwell handbook of childhood social development (3rd ed., pp. 386404). Wiley-Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dean, L., Churchill, B., & Ruppanner, L. (2022). The mental load: Building a deeper theoretical understanding of how cognitive and emotional labor overload women and mothers. Community, Work & Family, 25(1), 1329. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2021.2002813

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DiCicco-Bloom, B., & Crabtree, B.F. (2006). The qualitative research interview. Medical Education, 40(4), 314321. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02418.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eliasson, I., & Johansson, A. (2021). The disengagement process among young athletes when withdrawing from sport: A new research approach. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 56(4), 537557. https://doi.org/10.1177/1012690219899614

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elliott, S.K., & Drummond, M. (2017a). The experience of parent/coaches in youth sport: A qualitative exploration of junior Australian football. Journal of Amateur Sport, 3(3), 6485. https://doi.org/10.17161/jas.v3i3.6511

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elliott, S.K., & Drummond, M.J.N. (2017b). Parents in youth sport: What happens after the game? Sport, Education and Society, 22, 391406. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2015.1036233

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Felber Charbonneau, E., & Camiré, M. (2020). Parental involvement in sport and the satisfaction of basic psychological needs: Perspectives from parent-child dyads. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18(5), 655671. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2019.1570533

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Row, Peterson and Company.

  • Guba, E.G., & Lincoln, Y.S. (2005). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (pp. 191215). Sage Publications Ltd.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holt, N.L., & Knight, C.J. (2014). Parenting in youth sport: From research to practice. Routledge.

  • Jeffery-Tosoni, S., Fraser-Thomas, J., & Baker, T. (2015). Parent involvement in Canadian youth hockey: Experiences and perspectives of peewee players. Journal of Sport Behaviour, 38(1), 325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jowett, S. (2007). Coach-athlete relationships ignite sense of groupness. In M.R. Beauchamp (Ed.), Group dynamics in exercise and sport psychology (pp. 8196). Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jowett, S., & Poczwardowski, A. (2007). Understanding the coach-athlete relationship. Social Psychology in Sport, 6, 314.

  • Keegan, R., Spray, C., Harwood, C., & Lavallee, D. (2010). The motivational atmosphere in youth sport: Coach, parent, and peer influences on motivation in specializing sport participants. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(1), 87105. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200903421267

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knight, C.J., Berrow, S.R., & Harwood, C.G. (2017). Parenting in sport. Current Opinion in Psychology, 16, 9397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.03.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knight, C.J., & Holt, N.L. (2014). Parenting in youth tennis: Understanding and enhancing children’s experiences. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(2), 155164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.10.010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levers, M.-J.D. (2013). Philosophical paradigms, grounded theory, and perspectives on emergence. Sage Open, 3(4), 16. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244013517243

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Logan, K., Cuff, S., LaBella, C.R., Brooks, A., Canty, G., Diamond, A.B., Hennrikus, W., Moffatt, K., Nemeth, B.A., Pengel, B., Peterson, A.R., & Stricker, P.R. (2019). Organized sports for children, preadolescents, and adolescents. Pediatrics, 143(6), Article e20190997. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-0997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKay, C.D., Cumming, S.P., & Blake, T. (2019). Youth sport: Friend or foe? Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, 33(1), 141157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2019.01.017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NCH Software. (2022). ExpressScribe Transcription Software (Version 9.22) [Computer software].

  • Noble, H., & Heale, R. (2019). Triangulation in research, with examples. Evidence-Based Nursing, 22(3), 6768. https://doi.org/10.1136/ebnurs-2019-103145

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Omli, J., & Wiese-Bjornstal, D.M. (2011). Kids speak: Preferred parental behavior at youth sport events. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82(4), 702711. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2011.10599807

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poucher, Z.A., Povilaitis, V.A., & Tamminen, K.A. (2015). The car ride home: Exploring the content and structure of parent-child sport conversations. Journal of Exercise, Movement, and Sport, 47(1), Article 112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prichard, A., & Deutsch, J. (2015). The effects of motivational climate on youth sport participants. The Physical Educator, 72(5), 200214. https://doi.org/10.18666/TPE-2015-V72-I5-6999

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmid, O.N., Bernstein, M., Shannon, V.R., Rishell, C., & Griffith, C. (2015). “It’s not just your dad, it’s not just your coach...” The dual-relationship in female tennis players. The Sport Psychologist, 29(3), 224236. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2014-0049

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sharma, R. (2015). Preferred leadership behaviours of male and female badminton players. International Journal of Sport Culture and Science, 3(2), 7383. https://doi.org/10.14486/IJSCS278

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherman, N.W. (2002). Why female athletes quit: Implications for coach education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 73(2), Article 8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stenfors, T., Kajamaa, A., & Bennett, D. (2020). How to... assess the quality of qualitative research. The Clinical Teacher, 17(6), 596599. https://doi.org/10.1111/tct.13242

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strandbu, Å., Stefansen, K., Smette, I., & Sandvik, M.R. (2019). Young people’s experiences of parental involvement in youth sport. Sport, Education and Society, 24(1), 6677. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2017.1323200

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sutcliffe, J.T., Herbison, J.D., Martin, L.J., McLaren, C.D., Slachter, R., Benson, A.J., Van Woezik, R., Boardley, I.D., Carré, J.M., Côté, J., & Bruner, M.W. (2021). Exploring parent-athlete sport related communication outside of the sport environment with the electonrically activated recorder. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 54, Article 101919. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.101919

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tamminen, T.A., Poucher, Z.A., & Povilaitis, V. (2017). The car ride home: An interpretive examination of parent-athlete sport conversations. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 6(4), 325339. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000093

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Terry, P.C., & Howe, B.L. (1984). Coaching preferences of athletes. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 9(4), 188193.

  • Trussell, D.E. (2016). Young people’s perspectives of parent volunteerism in community sport. Sport Management Review, 19(3), 332342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2015.09.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trussell, D.E., & Shaw, S.M. (2012). Organized youth sport and parenting in public and private spaces. Leisure Sciences, 34(5), 377394. https://doi.org/10.1080/01490400.2012.714699

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vella, S., Oades, L., & Crowe, T. (2011). The role of the coach in facilitating positive youth development: Moving from theory to practice. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23(1), 3348. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2010.511423

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wałach-Biśta, Z.M. (2019). What do we want and what do we get from the coach? Preferred and perceived leadership in male and female team sports. Human Movement, 20(3), 3847. https://doi.org/10.5114/hm.2019.79734

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiss, M.R., & Fretwell, S.D. (2005). The parent-coach/child-athlete relationship in youth sport: Cordial, contentious, or conundrum? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76, 286305. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2005.10599300

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Witt, P.A., & Dangi, T.B. (2018). Why children/youth drop out of sports. Journal of Park andRecreation Administration, 36(3), 191199. https://doi.org/10.18666/JPRA-2018-V36-I3-8618

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zehnter, C., McMahon, J., & McGannon, K.R. (2020). An intensive longitudinal investigation of a parent-coach’s practices and strategies ‘in action’; challenges and opportunities. Sports Coaching Review, 9(2), 147167. https://doi.org/10.1080/21640629.2019.1590082

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1395 1395 74
Full Text Views 281 281 57
PDF Downloads 132 132 11