A Proposed Three-Stage Postperformance-Routine Framework

Click name to view affiliation

Jason Kostrna Department of Teaching and Learning, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA

Search for other papers by Jason Kostrna in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4838-7094 *
,
Jean-Charles Lebeau School of Kinesiology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA

Search for other papers by Jean-Charles Lebeau in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6550-6676
,
Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

Search for other papers by Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0314-0191
, and
Brian Foster Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Florida State University, Miami, FL, USA

Search for other papers by Brian Foster in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7033-3490
Restricted access

Research has supported the use of preperformance routines to successfully manage the period preceding sport performance. In contrast, little research has been done on the period succeeding skill execution. This article introduces a three-stage model for postperformance routines (PoPR) for novice motor learning and performance including emotion regulation, performance analysis and correction, and continuation to the next performance trial. To test this model, 38 novice golfers completed a putting task after random assignment to either a PoPR or a control condition. Putting performance was measured after each putt, and self-efficacy, arousal, affect, and perceived task difficulty were recorded every 10 putts. Participants in the PoPR group improved their performance from baseline to postintervention (d = −0.55), while performance in the control group remained unchanged (d = −0.01). No significant differences were observed for performance consistency, emotions, self-efficacy, and perceived task difficulty. Thus, practitioners implementing a PoPR in novice athletes may consider the proposed three-stage framework for improvements in motor learning and performance.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Allen, M.S., Iliescu, D., & Greiff, S. (2022). Single item measures in psychological science: A call to action. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 38(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000699

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W.H. Freeman and Company.

  • Beck, A.T., & Weishaar, M. (1995). Cognitive therapy. In R.J. Corsini& D. Wedding (Eds.), Current psychotherapies (pp. 238268). Peacock Publishers.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beltrão, N.B., Ximenes Santos, C., de Oliveira, V.M.A., Pirauá, A.L.T., Behm, D., Pitangui, A.C.R., & de Araújo, R.C. (2020). Effects of a 12-week chronic stretch training program at different intensities on joint and muscle mechanical responses: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 29(7), 904912. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2018-0443

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bloom, G.A., Durand-Bush, N., & Salmela, J.H. (1997). Pre- and postcompetition routines of expert coaches of team sports. The Sport Psychologist, 11(2), 127141. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.11.2.127

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun-Trocchio, R., Renteria, J., Warfield, E., Harrison, K., & Williams, A. (2022). The effects of face coverings on perceived exertion and attention allocation during a stepping task. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(11), Article 6892. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116892

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • Cohn, P.J. (1990). Preperformance routines in sport: Theoretical support and practical applications. The Sport Psychologist, 4(3), 301312. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.4.3.301

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohn, P.J., Rotella, R.J., & Lloyd, J.W. (1990). Effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention on the preshot routine and performance in golf. The Sport Psychologist, 4(1), 3347. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.4.1.33

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cotterill, S. (2010). Pre-performance routines in sport: Current understanding and future directions. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 3(2), 132153. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2010.488269

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Ridder, D.T.D., de Boer, B.J., Lugtig, P., Bakker, A.B., & van Hooft, E.A.J. (2011). Not doing bad things is not equivalent to doing the right thing: Distinguishing between inhibitory and initiatory self-control. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 10061011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.01.015

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175191. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fitts, P.M., & Posner, M.I. (1967). Human performance. Brooks/Cole.

  • Follador, L., Alves, R.C., Ferreira, S.D.S., Silva, A.C., & Silva, S.G.D. (2019). Perceived exertion and affect from tai chi, yoga, and stretching classes for Elderly women. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 126(2), 223240. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031512518823661

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foster, D.J., Weigand, D.A., & Baines, D. (2006). The effect of removing superstitious behavior and introducing a pre-performance routine on basketball free-throw performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 18(2), 167171. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200500471343

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fung, S.F., Kong, C., & Huang, Q. (2020). Evaluating the dimensionality and psychometric properties of the brief self-control scale amongst Chinese University students. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article 2903. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02903

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, F.L., & Moore, Z.E. (2004). A mindfulness-acceptance-commitment-based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behavior Therapy, 35(4), 707723. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80016-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gould, D., & Udry, E. (1994). Psychological skills for enhancing performance: Arousal regulation strategies. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 26(4), 478485. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199404000-00013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gould, D., Weiss, M., & Weinberg, R.S. (1981). Psychological characteristics of successful and nonsuccessful Big Ten wrestlers. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3(1), 6981. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.3.1.69

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanin, Y.L. (1997). Emotions and athletic performance: Individual zones of optimal functioning model. In D. Smith& M. Bar-Eli (Eds.), European yearbook of sport psychology (pp. 5573). Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanin, Y.L. (2000). An individualized approach to emotion in sport. In Y.L. Hannin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. ixxii) Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardy, C.J., & Rejeski, W.J. (1989). Not what, but how one feels: The measurement of affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11(3), 304317. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.11.3.304

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harle, S.K., & Vickers, J.N. (2001). Training quiet eye improves accuracy in basketball free throw. The Sport Psychologist, 15(3), 289305. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.15.3.289

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hatfield, B.D., & Kerick, S.E. (2007). The psychology of superior sport performance: A cognitive and affective neuroscience perspective. In G. Tenenbaum& R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp. 84109). John Wiley & Sons.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Zourbanos, N., Galanis, E., & Theodorakis, Y. (2011). Self-talk and sports performance: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(4), 348356. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691611413136

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, D.M., Hanton, S., Matthews, N., & Fleming, S. (2010). A qualitative exploration of choking in elite golf. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4(3), 221240. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.4.3.221

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoeppner, B.B., Kelly, J.F., Urbanoski, K.A., & Slaymaker, V. (2011). Comparative utility of a single-item versus multiple-item measure of self-efficacy in predicting relapse among young adults. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 41(3), 305312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2011.04.005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kamakura, W.A. (2015). Measure twice and cut once: The carpenter’s rule still applies. Marketing Letters: A Journal of Research in Marketing, 26(3), 237243. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11002-014-9298-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kamata, A., Tenenbaum, G., & Hanin, Y. (2002). Individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF): A probabilistic conceptualization. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24(2), 189208. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.24.2.189

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaufman, K.A., Glass, C.R., & Arnkoff, D.B. (2009) Evaluation of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 4, 334356. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.3.4.334

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lidor, R., & Mayan, Z. (2005). Can beginning learners benefit from preperformance routines when serving in volleyball? The Sport Psychologist, 19(4), 343363. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.19.4.343

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maloney, P.W., Grawitch, M.J., & Barber, L.K. (2012). The multi-factor structure of the brief self-control scale: Discriminant validity of restraint and impulsivity. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(1), 111115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2011.10.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markus, H.R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224253. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marlow, C., Bull, S., Heath, B., & Shambrook, C. (1998). The use of a single case design to investigate the effect of a pre-performance routine on the water polo penalty shot. Journal of Performance and Medicine in Sport, 1, 143155. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(98)80010-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McHugh, M.P., & Cosgrave, C.H. (2010). To stretch or not to stretch: The role of stretching in injury prevention and performance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20, 169181. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01058.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meneghel, I., Salanova, M., & Martínez, I.M. (2016). Feeling good makes us stronger: How team resilience mediates the effect of positive emotions on team performance. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 239255. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9592-6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mesagno, C. (2014, April 28). Testing pre-shot and post-shot routine effectiveness—part 1. Bowling This Month.

  • Mesagno, C., Hill, D.M., & Larkin, P. (2015). Examining the accuracy and in-game performance effects between pre- and post-performance routines: A mixed methods study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 19, 8594. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.03.005

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, W.E. (1986). Covert-overt service routines: The effects of a service routine training program on elite tennis players (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). University of Virginia.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, W.E., & Stevenson, J.R. (1994). Training a pre-shot routine for golf. Applied Research in Coaching and Athletics Annual, 161167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moradi, J. (2020). Benefits of a guided motor-mental preperformance routine on learning the basketball free throw. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 127(1), 248262. https://doi.org/10.1177/0031512519870648

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moran, A.P. (1996). The psychology of concentration in sport performers: A cognitive analysis. Taylor & Francis.

  • Moritz, S.E., Feltz, D.L., Fahrbach, K.R., & Mack, D.E. (2000). The relation of self-efficacy measures to sport performance: A meta-analytic review. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(3), 280294. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2000.10608908

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ortony, A., Clore, G., & Collins, A. (1988). The cognitive structure of emotions. Cambridge University Press.

  • Perry, I., Chow, G., Tenenbaum, G., & Katz, Y. (2018). The effect of motor-mental preperformance routines on motor performance in novice learners. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 30(4), 402420. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2017.1411404

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Posner, J., Russell, J.A., & Peterson, B.S. (2005). The circumplex model of affect: An integrative approach to affective neuroscience, cognitive development, and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 715734. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579405050340

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Post, A.K., Koning, R.H., Visscher, C., & Elferink-Gemser, M.T. (2022). The importance of reflection and evaluation processes in daily training sessions for progression toward elite level swimming performance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 61, Article 102219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2022.102219

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raedeke, T.D., & Stein G.L. (1994). Felt arousal, thoughts/feelings, and ski performance. The Sport Psychologist, 8(4), 360375. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.8.4.360

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richard, V., Lebeau, J.C., Becker, F., Inglis, E.R., & Tenenbaum, G. (2018). Do more creative people adapt better? An investigation into the association between creativity and adaptation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 38, 8089. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.06.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richard, V., Mason, J., Alvarez-Alvarado, S., Perry, I., Lussier, B., & Tenenbaum, G. (2021). Effect of preperformance routine on advanced swimmers’ performance and motor efficiency, self-efficacy, and idiosyncratic emotions. The Sport Psychologist, 35(2), 97107. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2020-0023

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rupprecht, A.G., Tran, U.S., & Gröpel, P. (2021). The effectiveness of pre-performance routines in sports: A meta-analysis. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2021.1944271

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Russell, J.A., Weiss, A., & Mendelsohn, G.A. (1989). Affect grid: A single-item scale of pleasure and arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(3), 493502. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.3.493

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidt, R.A., Lee, T.D., Winstein, C., Wulf, G., & Zelaznik, H.N. (2018). Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis. Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmidt, R.A., & Walter, C.B. (1984). Knowledge of results and motor learning: A review and critical reappraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 355386. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.355

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singer, R.N. (1988). Strategies and metastrategies in learning and performing self-paced athletic skills. The Sport Psychologist, 2(1), 4968. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2.1.49

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stoeber, J., Madigan, D.J., & Gonidis, L. (2020). Perfectionism is adaptive and maladaptive, but what’s the combined effect? Personality and Individual Differences, 161, Article 109846. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.109846

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Svebak, S., & Murgatroyd, S. (1985). Metamotivational dominance: A multimethod validation of reversal theory constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), Article 107. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.48.1.107

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tangney, J.P., Baumeister, R.F., & Boone, A.L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 271324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tenenbaum, G., & Connolly, C.T. (2008). Attention allocation under varied workload and effort perception in rowers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(5), 704717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.09.002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thewlis, D., Bishop, C., Daniell, N., & Paul, G. (2013). Next generation low-cost motion capture systems can provide comparable spatial accuracy to high-end systems. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 29(1), 112117. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.29.1.112

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vandoni, M., Codrons, E., Marin, L., Correale, L., Bigliassi, M., & Buzzachera, C.F. (2016). Psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions: Does exercise intensity matter? PLoS One, 11(8), Article e0149997. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wergin, V.V., Beckmann, J., Gröpel, P., & Mesagno, C. (2020). Investigating cumulative effects of pre-performance routine interventions in beach volleyball serving. PLoS One, 15(1), Article e0228012. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0228012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, G., & Smith, A. (2016) Using single-item measures to examine the relationships between work, personality, and well-being in the workplace. Psychology, 7(6), 753767. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2016.76078

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, J.M., & Harris, D.V. (2006). Relaxation and energizing techniques for regulation of arousal. In J. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (5th ed., pp. 285305). Mayfield Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 727 727 40
Full Text Views 521 521 4
PDF Downloads 70 70 5