The purpose of this article is to describe the construction (Phase 1) and external validation (Phase 2) of a behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) for identifying and measuring competencies for basketball referees (BARS-BR). In Phase 1, BARS-BR was developed by deriving a consensus of two panels of individuals (N = 20), with varying degrees of knowledge and experience in basketball officiating, about the proper competencies of basketball referees. The panels generated 13 performance categories (or competencies), each including at least three behavioral examples (or “anchors”). Phase 2 consisted of two stages: (a) obtaining external validity of BARS-BR by 212 practicing skilled basketball referees by indicating their support for the performance categories and behavioral examples, and (b) assessing performance effectiveness of high-skilled and novice referees on each of the 13 BARS performance competencies. The results lent support to the validation of the BARS-BR for assessing competence in basketball officiating. Implications for using the BARS technique in sports psychology are discussed.
Mark H. Anshel is with the Psychology Department at the University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave., Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.