Relative Age Effects in Women’s Ice Hockey: Contributions of Body Size and Maturity Status

in Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $41.00

1 year subscription

USD  $54.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $77.00

2 year subscription

USD  $101.00

Research on relative age effects (RAEs) in women’s ice hockey is lacking data on participant characteristics, particularly body size and maturity status. The purposes of our study were to investigate RAEs in women’s ice hockey players from two countries, and to determine whether RAE patterns could be explained by chronological age, body size, and maturity status. Participants were 54 Swedish elite and 63 Canadian university players. Birthdates were coded by quartiles (Q1–Q4). Weight and height were obtained, and body mass index and chronological age were calculated for each player. Players recalled age at menarche, and maturity status was classified as early, average, or late relative to population-specific means. Chi-square (χ2), odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and effect sizes (Cohen’s w) were calculated using population data across quartiles and for pairwise comparisons between quartiles. Descriptive statistics and MANOVAs were run by quartile and by country. Significant RAEs were found for Canadian players across quartiles (p < .05), along with a Q2 phenomenon (Q2: Q3, Q2: Q4, p < .05). Swedish players were overrepresented in Q3 (Q3: Q4, p < .05). Q4 was significantly underrepresented in both countries (p < .05). The oldest, earliest maturing, and shortest players in both countries were clustered in Q2, whereas the next oldest and latest maturing Swedish players were found in Q3. Age, physical factors, and interactions may contribute to overrepresentations in Q2 and Q3. These findings do not suggest the same bias for greater relative age and maturity found in male ice hockey.

Geithner is with Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA. Molenaar is with Regis University, Denver, CO. Henriksson, Fjellman-Wiklund, and Gilenstam are with Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Address author correspondence to Christina A. Geithner at tinageithner@me.com.
  • Al-Sahab, B., Ardem, D.I., Hamadeh, M.J., & Tamim, H. (2010). Age at menarche in Canada: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth. BioMed Central Public Health, 10, 736–743. PubMed ID: 21110899 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-736

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, J., Cobley, S., Montelpare, W., Wattie, N., & Faught, B. (2010). Exploring proposed mechanisms of the relative age effect in Canadian minor hockey. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 41(2), 148–159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker, J., Schorer, J., & Cobley, S. (2010). Relative age effects: An inevitable consequence of elite sport? Sportwiss, 40, 26–30. doi:10.1007/s12662-009-0095-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnsley, R.H., & Thompson, A.H. (1988). Birthdate and success in minor hockey: The key to the NHL. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, 20, 167–176. doi:10.1037/h0079927

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baxter-Jones, A.D.G., Malina, R.M., & Thompson, A.M. (2002). Growth and maturation in elite young female athletes. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, 10(1), 42–49. Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/sportsmedarthro/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2002&issue=10010&article=00007&type=Fulltext. doi:10.1097/00132585-200210010-00007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergsten-Brucefors, A. (1976). A note on the accuracy of recalled age at menarche. Annals of Human Biology, 3(1), 71–73. PubMed ID: 945036 doi:10.1080/03014467600001151

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bland, J.M., & Altman, D.G. (2000). Statistics notes: The odds ratio. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 320(7247), 1468–1468. PubMed ID: 10827061 doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7247.1468

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cameron, N. (2002). Assessment of maturation. In N. Cameron (Ed.), Human growth and development (pp. 363–382). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chittle, L., Horton, S., & Dixon, J.C. (2015). Exploring the relative age effect in Canadian Interuniversity ice hockey. Talent Development & Excellence, 7(1), 69–81. Retrieved from https://www.iratde.org/journal

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Claessens, A.L., Bourgois, J., Beunen, G., Philippaerts, R., Thomis, M., Lefevre, J., … Vrijens, J. (2003). Age at menarche in relation to anthropmetric characteristics of competition level and boat category in elite junior rowers. Annals of Human Biology, 30(2), 148–159. PubMed ID: 12637191 doi:10.1080/0301446021000034633

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobley, S., Baker, J., Wattie, N., & McKenna, J. (2009). Annual age-grouping & athlete development: A meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport. Sports Medicine, 39, 235–256. PubMed ID: 19290678 doi:10.2165/00007256-200939030-00005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Damon, A., Damon, S.T., Reed, R.B., & Valadian, I. (1969). Age at menarche of mothers and daughters, with a note on accuracy of recall. Human Biology, 41(2), 161–175. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41448964

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Danker-Hopfe, H. (1986). Menarcheal age in Europe. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 29, 81–112. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330290504

  • Delorme, N., Boiché, J., & Raspaud, M. (2009). The relative age effect in elite sport: The French case. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80, 336–344. PubMed ID: 19650399 doi:10.1080/02701367.2009.10599568

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delorme, N., Boiché, J., & Raspaud, M. (2010). The relative age effect in female sport: A diachronic examination of soccer players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(3), 509–515. PubMed ID: 19602186 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00979.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delorme, N., & Champely, S. (2013). Relative age effect and chi-squared statistics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 50, 740–746. doi:10.1177/1012690213493104

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Filipsson, R., & Hall, K. (1976). Correlation between dental maturity, height development and sexual maturation in normal girls. Annals of Human Biology, 3, 205–210. PubMed ID: 962300 doi:10.1080/03014467600001361

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Furu, M. (1976). Menarcheal age in Stockholm girls. Annals of Human Biology, 3, 587–590. PubMed ID: 999234 doi:10.1080/03014467600001851

  • Geithner, C.A., Lee, A.M., & Bracko, M.R. (2006). Physical and performance differences among forwards, defensemen, and goalies in elite women’s ice hockey. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(3), 500–505. PubMed ID: 16977704 Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Pages/toc.aspx?year=2006&issue=08000

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geithner, C.A., Woynarowska, B., & Malina, R.M. (1998). The adolescent spurt and sexual maturation of girls active in sport and not active in sport. Annals of Human Biology, 25, 415–423. PubMed ID: 9741485 doi:10.1080/03014469800006662

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilenstam, K. (2010). Gender and physiology in ice hockey - A multidimensional study (Doctoral thesis). Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Retrieved from http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:281802/FULLTEXT01.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilenstam, K., Karp, S., & Henriksson-Larsen, K. (2008). Gender in ice hockey: Women in a male territory. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18(2), 235–249. PubMed ID: 17490454 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00665.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grondin, S., Deshaies, P., & Nault, L.-P. (1984). Trimestres de naissance et participation au hockey et au volleyball. La Revue Quebecoise de l’Activité Physique, 2, 97–103. (In French: English abstract). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11794/373

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grondin, S., & Trudeau, F. (1991). Date de naissance et ligue nationale de hockey: Analyses en function de différents paramêtres. Revue des Sciences et Techniques des Activités Physiques et Sportive, 26, 37–45. (In French: English abstract). Retrieved from http://www.cms.fss.ulaval.ca/upload/psy_nouveau/fichiers/grondin__trudeau_1991.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancock, D.J. (2017). Female relative age effects and the second-quartile phenomenon in young female ice hockey players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 32, 12–16. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.05.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancock, D.J., Seal, K., Young, B.W., Weir, P.L., & Ste-Marie, D.M. (2013). Examining mechanisms that contribute to relative age effects in pre-pubescent female ice hockey players. Talent Development & Excellence, 5(2), 59–66. Retrieved from https://www.iratde.org/journal

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartard, M., Kleinmond, C.Kirchbichler, A., Jeschke, D., Wiseman, M., Weissenbacher, E.R., … Erben, R.G. (2004). Age at first oral contraceptive use as a major determinant of vertebral bone mass in female endurance athletes. Bone, 35(4), 836–841. PubMed ID: 15454090 doi:10.1016/j.bone.2004.05.017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Helsen, W.F., Van Winckel, J., & Williams, A.M. (2005). The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 629–636. PubMed ID: 16195011 doi:10.1080/02640410400021310

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henriksson, T. (2017). Physiological- and socio-cultural conditions for performance in women’s ice hockey (Doctoral thesis). Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Retrieved from https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1165253/SPIKBLAD01.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henriksson, T., Vescovi, J.D., Fjellman-Wiklund, A., & Gilenstam, K. (2016). Laboratory- and field-based testing as predictors of skating performance in competitive-level female ice hockey. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, 7, 81–88. PubMed ID: 27574474 doi:10.2147/OAJSM.S109124

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutchon, D.J.R. (2001). Calculator for confidence intervals of odds ratio in an unmatched case control study. Retrieved from http://www.hutchon.net/ConfidOR.htm

    • Export Citation
  • International Ice Hockey Federation. (2017). The IIHF survey of players. Retrieved from http://www.iihf.com/iihf-home/the-iihf/survey-of-players/

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • Karapanou, O., & Papdimitriou, A. (2010). Determinants of menarche. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 8, 115–122. doi:10.1186/1477-7827-8-115

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lidor, R., Arnon, M., Maayan, Z., Gershon, T., & Côté, J. (2014). Relative age effect and birthplace effect in Division 1 female ballgame players – the relevance of sport-specific factors. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12(1), 19–33. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2012.756232

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindgren, G. (1976). Height, weight and menarche in Swedish urban school children in relation to socioeconomic and regional factors. Annals of Human Biology, 3(6), 501–528. PubMed ID: 999228 doi:10.1080/03014467600001781

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindgren, G.W., Degerfors, I.L., Fredriksson, A., Loukili, A., Mannerfeldt, R., Nordin, M., … Sylvan, E. (1991). Menarche 1990 in Stockholm schoolgirls. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 80, 953–955. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1991.tb11758.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Livson, N., & MacNeill, D. (1962). The accuracy of recalled age of menarche. Human Biology, 34, 218–221. PubMed ID: 13931081 Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/41448561

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malina, R.M. (1983). Menarche in athletes: A synthesis and hypothesis. Annals of Human Biology, 10(1), 1–24. PubMed ID: 6838152 doi:10.1080/03014468300006141

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malina, R.M. (2003). Youth football players: Number of participants, growth and maturity status. In T. Reilly, J. Cabri, & D. Araujo (Eds.), Science and football V. The proceedings of the fifth World Congress on science and football (pp. 434–443). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malina, R.M., Bouchard, C., & Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Malina, R.M., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Bonci, C.M., Ryan, R.C., & Wellens, R. (1997). Family size and age at menarche in athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 29(1), 99–106. PubMed ID: 9000161 doi:10.1097/00005768-199701000-00014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malina, R.M., Rogol, A.D., Cumming, S.P., Coelho e Silva, M.J., & Figueiredo, A.J. (2015). Biological maturation of youth athletes: Assessment and implications. British Medical Journal, 49, 852–859. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-094623

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malina, R.M., Ryan, R.C., & Bonci, C.M. (1994). Age at menarche in athletes and their mothers and sisters. Annals of Human Biology, 21(5), 417–422. PubMed ID: 7985990 doi:10.1080/03014469400003432

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malina, R.M., Spirduso, W.W., Tate, C., & Baylor, A.M. (1978). Age at menarche and selected menstrual characteristics in athletes at different competitive levels and in different sports. Medicine and Science in Sports, 10(3), 218–222. PubMed ID: 723515 Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/toc/1978/10030

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montelpare, W.J., Scott, D., & Pelino, M. (2000). Tracking the relative age effect across minor, amateur and professional ice-hockey leagues. In A.B. Ashare (Ed.), Safety in ice hockey: Third volume, ASTM STP 1341 (pp. 250–260). West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials. doi:10.1520/STP15243S

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montgomery, D.L. (2006). Physiological profile of professional hockey players—a longitudinal study. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 31, 181–185. doi:10.1139/h06-012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Musch, J., & Grondin, S. (2001). Unequal competition as an impediment to personal development: A review of the relative age effect in sport. Developmental Review, 21, 147–167. doi:10.1006/drev.2000.0516

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olympic.org. (2018). Sports: Ice Hockey: International Ice Hockey Federation. Retrieved from http://www.olympic.org/iihf

    • Export Citation
  • Pfister, G. (2010). Women in sport– gender relations and future perspectives. Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics, 13(2), 234–248. doi:10.1080/17430430903522954

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prather, H., Hunt, D., McKeon, K., Simpson, S., Meyer, E.B., Yemm, T., & Brophy, R. (2016). Are elite female soccer athletes at risk for disordered eating attitudes, menstrual dysfunction, and stress fractures? PM&R: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 8(3), 208–213. doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.07.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ransdell, L.B., & Murray, T. (2011). A physical profile of elite female ice hockey players from the USA. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(9), 2358–2363. PubMed ID: 21804420 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822a5440

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ransdell, L.B., Murray, T., & Gao, Y. (2013). Off-ice fitness of elite female ice hockey players by team success, age, and player position. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(4), 875–884. PubMed ID: 22739329 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182651fd2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rivera, M.A., Matos, R.M., & Volquez, B. (1990). Age of menarche and menstruation characteristics of Puerto Rican women athletes. Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, 9(2), 179–183. PubMed ID: 2077556

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schorer, J., Baker, J., Büsch, D., Wilhelm, A., & Pabst, J. (2009). Relative age, talent identification and youth skill development: Do relatively younger athletes have superior technical skills? Talent Development & Excellence, 1(1), 45–56. Retrieved from https://www.iratde.org/journal

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schorer, J., Cobley, S., Büsch, D., Bräutigam, H., & Baker, J. (2009). Influences of competition level, gender, player nationality, career stage and playing position on relative age effects. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 19(5), 720–730. PubMed ID: 18627551 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00838.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scraton, S., Fasting, K., Pfister, G., & Bunuel, A. (1999). It’s still a man’s game? The experience of top-level European women footballers. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 34(2), 99–111. doi:10.1177/101269099034002001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherar, L.B., Baxter-Jones, A.D.G., Faulkner, R.A., & Russell, K.W. (2007). Do physical maturity and birth date predict talent in male youth ice hockey players? Journal of Sports Science, 25(8), 879–886. doi:10.1080/02640410600908001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skierska, E. (1998). Age at menarche and prevalence of oligo/amenorrhea in top Polish athletes. American Journal of Human Biology, 10(4), 511–517. PubMed ID: 28561474

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, K.L., & Weir, P.L. (2013). An examination of the relative age effect in developmental girls’ hockey in Ontario. Journal of High Ability Studies, 24(2), 171–184. doi:10.1080/13598139.2013.847357

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, K.L., Weir, P.L., Till, K., Romann, M., & Cobley, S. (2018). Relative age effects across and within female sport contexts: A systematic review and meta-anlysis. Sports Medicine, 48, 1451–1478. PubMed ID: 29536262 doi:10.1007/s40279-018-0890-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stager, J.M., & Hatler, L.K. (1988). Menarche in athletes: the influence of genetics and prepubertal training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 20(4), 369–373. PubMed ID: 3173044 doi:10.1249/00005768-198808000-00007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statistics Canada. (2015a). Body composition of Canadian adults, 2009–2011. Health Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2012001/article/11708-eng.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statistics Canada. (2015b, February 26). Custom data table provided by Desiree Ng. Vancouver, BC: Statistics Canada.

  • Statistics Sweden (Statistiska Centralbyrån). (2015a). BMI, längd och vikt– medelvärden 1988–89, 2008–2011.xls (data for and BMI, height, and weight, 1988–89, 2008–2011). Retrieved from http://www.scb.se/sv_/Hitta-statistik/Statistik-efter-amne/Levnadsforhallanden/Levnadsforhallanden/Undersokningarna-av-levnadsforhallanden-ULFSILC/12202/12209/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statistics Sweden (Statistiska Centralbyrån). (2015b). Custom data table provided by Rikard Gard. Örebro, Sweden: Enheten för befolkningsstatistik, Avdelningen för befolkning och välfärd, Statistiska centralbyrån. Retrieved from http://www.scb.se/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stenling, A., & Holmström, S. (2014). Evidence of relative age effects in Swedish women’s ice hockey. Talent Development & Excellence, 6(1), 31–40. Retrieved from https://www.iratde.org/journal

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Theberge, N. (1997). “It’s part of the game”: Physicality and the production of gender in women’s hockey. Gender & Society, 11(1), 69–87. doi:10.1177/089124397011001005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Theberge, N. (2003). “No fear comes”: Adolescent girls, ice hockey, and the embodiment of gender. Youth & Society, 34(4), 497–516. doi:10.1177/0044118X03034004005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Till, K., Cobley, S., O’Hara, J., Cooke, C., & Chapman, C. (2013). Considering maturation status and relative age in the longitudinal evaluation of junior rugby league players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(3), 569–576. PubMed ID: 23289942 doi:10.1111/sms.12033

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Till, K., Cobley, S., Wattie, N., O’Hara, H., Cooke, C., & Chapman, C. (2010). The prevalence, influential factors and mechanisms of relative age effects in UK Rugby League. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20(2), 320–329. PubMed ID: 19486487 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00884.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Turner, L. (2017). Chi Square calculator. Two-way contingency table tests. Retrieved from http://turner.faculty.swau.edu/mathematics/math241/materials/contablecalc/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vincent, J., & Glamser, F.D. (2006). Gender differences in the relative age effect among U.S. Olympic Development Program youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(4), 405–413. PubMed ID: 16492604 doi:10.1080/02640410500244655

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wattie, N., Baker, J., Cobley, S., & Montelpare, W.J. (2007). A historical examination of relative age effects in Canadian hockey players. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 38(2), 178–186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wattie, N., Schorer, J., & Baker, J. (2015). The relative age effect in sport: A developmental systems model. Sports Medicine, 45(1), 83–94. PubMed ID: 25169442 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0248-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weir, P.L., Smith, K.L., Paterson, C., & Horton, S. (2010). Canadian women’s ice hockey– evidence of a relative age effect. Talent Development & Excellence, 2(2), 209–217. Retrieved from https://www.iratde.org/journal

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Medical Association. (2013). World Medical Association Declaration of Helskinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Journal of the American Medical Association, 310(20), 2191–2194. PubMed ID: 24141714 doi:10.1001/jama.2013.281053

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World of Sports Science. (2018). Women’s ice hockey. Retrieved from http://www.faqs.org/sports-science/Us-Z-and-bibliography/Women-s-Ice-Hockey.html

    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 34 34 7
Full Text Views 1 1 0
PDF Downloads 0 0 0