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Brendan Dwyer, Stephen L. Shapiro, and Joris Drayer

Sports betting in the United States is exploding in popularity and has the potential to change the way sports fans interact with sports properties and sports content. However, not all sports bettors are the same, and market segmentation research provides a resource for more targeted communication and marketing strategies. Utilizing behavioral and psychographic data, the current study segmented 1,077 sports bettors by involvement. The segments were then contrasted on a number of factors within the framework of Mowen’s 3M model of motivation and personality. A sample of 513 nonbetting sports fans was also included as a segment within the analyses. Statistically significant differences were found at the motivational, elemental, compound, and surface trait levels between the betting segments and between the betting and the nonbetting sports fans. The findings point to a strong emotional draw regardless of involvement yet a clear need for the betting industry to educate on issues related to jurisdictional legality and common language.

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Unai Latorre Erezuma, Maialen Zelaia Amilibia, Ander Espin Elorza, Camilo Cortés, Jon Irazusta, and Ana Rodriguez-Larrad

This study assessed the effectiveness of a passive back support exoskeleton during a mechanical loading task. Fifteen healthy participants performed a simulated patient transfer task while wearing the Laevo (version 2.5) passive back support exoskeleton. Collected metrics encompassed L5-S1 joint moments, back and abdominal muscle activity, lower body and back kinematics, center of mass displacement, and movement smoothness. A statistical parametric mapping analysis approach was used to overcome limitations from discretization of continuous data. The exoskeleton reduced L5-S1 joint moments during trunk flexion, but wearing the device restricted L5-S1 joint flexion when flexing the trunk as well as hip and knee extension, preventing participants from standing fully upright. Moreover, wearing the device limited center of mass motion in the caudal direction and increased its motion in the anterior direction. Therefore, wearing the exoskeleton partly reduced lower back moments during the lowering phase of the patient transfer task, but there were some undesired effects such as altered joint kinematics and center of mass displacement. Statistical parametric mapping analysis was useful in determining the benefits and hindrances produced by wearing the exoskeleton while performing the simulated patient transfer task and should be utilized in further studies to inform design and appropriate usage.

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Madeline E. Shivgulam, Jennifer L. Petterson, Liam P. Pellerine, Derek S. Kimmerly, and Myles W. O’Brien

Stepping cadence is an important determinant of activity intensity, with faster stepping associated with the most health benefits. The Stryd monitor provides real-time feedback on stepping cadence. The limited existing literature has neither validated the Stryd across slow walking to fast running speeds nor strictly followed statistical guidelines for monitor validation studies. We assessed the criterion validity of the Stryd monitor to detect stepping cadence across multiple walking and jogging/running speeds. It was hypothesized that the Stryd monitor would be an accurate measure of stepping cadence across all measured speeds. Forty-six participants (23 ± 5 years, 26 females) wore the Stryd monitor on their shoelaces during a 10-stage progressive treadmill walking (Speeds 1–5) and jogging/running (Speeds 6–10) protocol (criterion: manually counted video-recorded cadence; total stages: 438). Standardized guidelines for physical activity monitor statistical analyses were followed. A two-way repeated-measure analysis of variance revealed the Stryd monitor recorded a slightly higher cadence (<1 steps/min difference, all p < .001) at 2 miles/hr (92.1 ± 6.2 steps/min vs. 91.5 ± 6.4 steps/min, p < .001), 2.5 miles/hr (101.3 ± 6.1 steps/min vs. 100.7 ± 6.4 steps/min), and 3.5 miles/hr (117.4 ± 5.9 steps/min vs. 117.0 ± 6.0 steps/min). However, equivalence testing demonstrated high equivalence of the Stryd and manually counted cadence (equivalence zone required: ≤± 2.6%) across all speeds. The Stryd activity monitor is a valid measure of stepping cadence across walking, jogging, and running speeds. By providing real-time cadence feedback, the Stryd monitor has strong potential to help guide the general public monitor their stepping intensity to promote more habitual activity at faster cadences.

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Emil Steiner, Matthew Pittman, and Brandon Boatwright

While sports fandom and social media advertising have been widely studied, and all major, professional teams use social media campaigns for direct sales, there is surprisingly little research on the relationship between fans’ social media engagement behavior (SMEB) and their purchase intention (PI), and none that differentiates PI across different platforms and sports contexts. This study addresses those gaps by exploring (a) how different kinds of fans engage their teams’ advertising on various social media and (b) how those different behaviors predict PI in different contexts. To do so, we utilized an SMEB framework to interpret survey data (N = 452) of U.S. sports fans’ social media engagement with their favorite teams over six popular platforms for two situations—in-game and out-of-game. Regression analyses determined the extent to which those behaviors predict PI across different sports and platforms during and outside of games. Our results show that fan SMEB varies by sport, platform, and situation. Furthermore, we found that information-acquiring social media behaviors—such as checking scores—best predict PI in-game, while fan-identity cultivation social media behaviors—such as posting—best predict PI out-of-game. In addition, PI predictability varies across platform and game situation, but not across age, gender, or even level of fandom. By contextualizing the relationship between fan SMEB and PI, our study lays a foundation to address these lingering gaps in the sport communication literature while providing actionable insights for teams and brands seeking more effective sales campaigns across an array of social media.

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Madeline Winans, Kevin M. Biese, Grace Rudek, Madison N. Renner, Julie M. Stamm, and David R. Bell

Attitudes and beliefs of parents about sport specialization may indicate why youth athletes decide to specialize. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between sport specialization level, ice hockey position, and the parent/guardians’ attitudes and beliefs on sport specialization. Our results demonstrate that goalies were the most likely to specialize, and parents of specialized ice hockey players tend to believe that sport specialization helps their child achieve future sporting aspirations. Increased sport specialization may put ice hockey goalies at an increased risk for overuse injuries, and parents’ beliefs about sport specialization may impact their child’s sporting behaviors.

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Russell Martindale, Chunxiao Li, Georgios Andronikos, Marziyeh Jafari, and Rokhsareh Badami

The environment plays a significant role in the development of talent athletes. A big part of this is preparing athletes with the psychological skills to cope and thrive through the challenges of their sporting journey. Understanding which features of the talent development environment (TDE) best facilitate psychological skill use would be extremely useful for coaches to understand. As such, the main aim of this research was to investigate the relationships between TDE factors and psychological skills through a variable and person-centered approach (i.e., use of both regression and cluster analyses). A second aim was to examine the psychometric properties of the Persian Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 (TDEQ-5) providing an initial validation for its use in Persian speaking cultures. To this end, the TDEQ-5 and Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports—Youth version—Short Form were administered to 371 Iranian athletes. The results showed that higher quality TDEs predicted higher psychological skill use. Specifically, holistic quality preparation predicted all five psychological skills, while long-term development predicted anxiety control and alignment of expectations predicted self-confidence. The Persian TDEQ-5 was found to be a valid and reliable tool. Implications for coaches and those in charge of TDEs are discussed.

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Iván Chulvi-Medrano, Juan Manuel Cortell-Tormo, Sergio Hernández-Sánchez, Moisés Picón-Martínez, and Nicholas Rolnick

Context: Resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) has increased in clinical rehabilitation due to the substantial benefits observed in augmenting muscle mass and strength using low loads. However, there is a great variability of training pressures for clinical populations as well as methods to estimate it. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of maximal BFR that could result by applying different methodologies based on arbitrary or individual occlusion levels using a cuff width between 9 and 13 cm. Design: A secondary analysis was performed on the combined databases of 2 previous larger studies using BFR training. Methods: To estimate these percentages, the occlusion values needed to reach complete BFR (100% limb occlusion pressure [LOP]) were estimated by Doppler ultrasound. Seventy-five participants (age 24.32 [4.86] y; weight: 78.51 [14.74] kg; height: 1.77 [0.09] m) were enrolled in the laboratory study for measuring LOP in the thigh, arm, or calf. Results: When arbitrary values of restriction are applied, a supra-occlusive LOP between 120% and 190% LOP may result. Furthermore, the application of 130% resting brachial systolic blood pressure creates a similar occlusive stimulus as 100% LOP. Conclusions: Methods using 100 mm Hg and the resting brachial systolic blood pressure could represent the safest application prescriptions as they resulted in applied pressures between 60% and 80% LOP. One hundred thirty percent of the resting brachial systolic blood pressure could be used to indirectly estimate 100% LOP at cuff widths between 9 and 13 cm. Finally, methodologies that use standard values of 200 and, 300 mm Hg far exceed LOP and may carry additional risk during BFR exercise.

Open access

Tracy Nau, William Bellew, Billie Giles-Corti, Adrian Bauman, and Ben J. Smith

Background: The development of policies that promote and enable physical activity (PA) is a global health priority. Laws are an important policy instrument that can enable enduring beneficial outcomes for individuals, organizations, and environments through multiple mechanisms. This article presents a systematic process for mapping laws relevant to PA, which can be used to understand the role of laws as a powerful PA policy lever. Methods: Building on methods used in public health law research, we developed a protocol for scientific mapping of laws influencing the built environment for PA in Australia. The MonQcle online legal research platform was used for data coding, analysis, and presentation. Results: We describe the 10 key stages of legal mapping that we applied to examine state and territory laws that influence walking and cycling in Australia. Conclusions: Law is a neglected element of policy research for PA. There is a need for accessible legal data to drive the design, investment, and implementation of legal interventions to improve population PA. Legal mapping is a first step toward evaluation of such laws for PA. This paper provides a practical case study and guidance for the 10 stages in legal mapping of laws that influence the built environment for PA.

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Jenna Morogiello, Rebekah Roessler, and Maddison Flowers

Campus recreation is an underserved population lacking specific medical standards, access to on-site medical personnel, and a universal injury surveillance system. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine injury epidemiology within a campus recreation center across 4 years. A total of 1,680 injuries were analyzed from one U.S. university with the greatest number of injuries occurring in intramural sports, informal recreation, and club sports, respectively. Of all injuries reported, 73% were musculoskeletal in nature and 9% were from concussions. As most injuries fall outside the scope of basic first aid, on-site medical services should be considered for all campus recreation settings.

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Rafael A. Alamilla, NiCole R. Keith, Rebecca E. Hasson, Gregory J. Welk, Deborah Riebe, Sara Wilcox, and Russell R. Pate

Physical activity policy can play a crucial role in ensuring that individuals, communities, and societies can obtain the wide range of health benefits associated with regular physical activity participation. Policies such as Title IX, the Americans With Disabilities Act, and state physical education laws have all increased opportunities for millions of Americans to participate in physical activity. With that said, how policies are developed and implemented vary considerably. The purpose of this manuscript is to contrast an academic conceptual framework with a pragmatic approach for policy implementation. In an ideal world, polices would be developed from foundational knowledge, scaled up to community-level interventions, and implemented in a sequential fashion. However, policy implementation is a disorderly process that requires a practical methodology. The National Physical Activity Plan encompasses strategies and tactics across 10 key societal sectors—and highlights the disorderly process of policy implementation across the various sectors.