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Anna M. Martin, Donghyun Ryu, Robin C. Jackson, and David L. Mann

Para sport classification aims to minimize the impact of impairments on the outcome of competition. The International Paralympic Committee requires classification systems to be evidence based and sport specific, yet the sport of goalball uses a structure that is not supported by evidence demonstrating its legitimacy for competition. This study aimed to establish expert opinions on how a sport-specific system of classification should be structured in the sport of goalball. Using a three-round Delphi survey, 30 international experts expressed their views across topics linked to goalball classification. Participants were divided as to whether the current system fulfills the aim to minimize the impact of impairment on competition. Most felt that less impairment should be required to compete but that the one-class structure should remain. Experts identified measures of visual function that should be considered and 15 core components of individual goalball performance. Findings constitute a crucial first step toward evidence-based classification in goalball.

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Yu Osugi, Aiko Imai, Toshiyuki Kurihara, Keiko Kishigami, Kazuhiko Higashida, and Kiyoshi Sanada

This study aimed to investigate the interaction between sarcopenic obesity and locomotive and nonlocomotive physical activity (PA) on the risk of depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older Japanese women. Participants were 143 community-dwelling older women aged 64–94 years. PA was measured using a three-axis accelerometer. Participants were classified according to two levels of total, locomotive, and nonlocomotive PA. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a self-administered survey consisting of the 15-item Japanese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15-J). The interaction between sarcopenic obesity groups and total or locomotive PA did not affect GDS-15-J scores. However, the interaction between sarcopenic obesity groups and nonlocomotive PA significantly affected GDS-15-J scores (p < .05). Moreover, sarcopenic obesity in the low PA group had significantly higher GDS-15-J scores compared with sarcopenic obesity in the high PA group (p < .05). We concluded that sarcopenic obesity combined with low nonlocomotive PA may exacerbate depressive symptoms in older women.

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Nader Farahpour, Mahboube Alemzadeh, Mehri Mohammadi, Mohammadreza Rezaie, and Paul Allard

Left–right differential erector spinae (ES) muscle strengthening is required to correct ES muscle imbalances. The objective was to test the effect of 6 body positions on the differential activation of the ES muscles. In 14 able-bodied young women, using a surface electromyography system, the bilateral ES muscles activity at the third lumbar (ESL3) and the 10th (EST10) and 6th (EST6) thoracic vertebral levels was measured with the contralateral arm and leg lifted in the prone and quadruped conditions and with a single arm lifted in the quadruped position. Results showed that the activity of the ESL3 was symmetrical (P > .05) and significantly smaller than that of the thoracic ES muscles in all body positions (P < .01). The EST10 and EST6 were differentially activated in all tests (P < .001). Besides, the differential activation was higher in the contralateral-arm and -leg lift in the quadruped position than in the other positions. In conclusion, contralateral-arm and -leg lift and single-arm lift in the quadruped and prone positions are capable of differentially activating the ES muscles on one side more than the other side. Further studies are recommended to examine the effectiveness of these exercises on the correction of ES muscle imbalances in clinical populations.

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Rodrigo Martín-San Agustín, Francesc Medina-Mirapeix, Mariano Gacto-Sánchez, Germán Cánovas-Ambit, and Aurelio Arenas-Della Vecchia

Context: Calculating the resistance provided by elastic resistance is essential with the aim of adjusting the load and controlling the progression of the exercises in programs using elastic resistance. This study aimed (1) to establish a model of the force elongation for CLX bands; (2) to examine whether these models are altered by different aspects of band elongation: the phase of elongation and shortening (concentric and eccentric phases), the elongation speed, and the initial resting length; and (3) to determine the resistance value for 100% of elongation in each color and to compare it with the values reported by Theraband. Design: Cross‐sectional. Methods: Ten CLX bands of each color were elongated by 2 experienced researchers to establish their elongation force curves in series of 10 repetitions per band using a Smith machine for an anchor, examining whether elongation force models were affected by elongation and shortening phases using one 4-loop CLX band stretched to 100% and at 0.50 m/s, elongation speed stretching two 4-loop CLX bands at 0.50 m/s and at 0.70 m/s, and different starting lengths using 3 CLX bands (2, 3, and 4 loops) stretched at 0.50 m/s. Results: No differences were found in the comparisons between phases, speeds, or different start lengths (mean errors ranged from 0.01 [0.07 N] for the blue band to 2.97 [0.94 N] for the gold band). Our values were higher than the reference values provided by Theraband for all colors, ranging from 2.3% to 33.1%. Conclusions: Our findings show that the values provided by the brand underestimate the resistance provided by CLX bands. To solve this, regression equations are provided so professionals can calculate the resistance of CLX bands based on their elongation. In addition, these models are not influenced by the phase of elongation and shortening, the elongation speed, and the initial resting length.

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Essi-Mari Tuomola, Kirsi E. Keskinen, Timo Hinrichs, Taina Rantanen, and Erja Portegijs

Little is known about older adults’ physical exercise destinations. We studied associations between physical activity (PA) level and physical exercise destinations (total number and surrounding environment) in community-dwelling 75- to 85-year-old adults living in Central Finland. Participants (N = 901) reported the amount of at least moderate-intensity PA and physical exercise destinations. Distance from home, land use, and locations of sport facilities were defined using a geographic information system. A general linear model showed that older adults with higher PA reported higher numbers of physical exercise destinations and destinations further away from home than those reporting lower PA. Binary logistic regression showed that higher PA increased the odds of reporting a distant destination identified as a sports facility and of reporting destinations located in residential, service, forest, and water body areas, respectively. Physical exercise destinations in different environments may attract older people to go out and be more physically active.

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Tomoya Ishida, Mina Samukawa, Yuta Koshino, Takumi Ino, Satoshi Kasahara, and Harukazu Tohyama

Asymmetry in knee extensor moment during double-leg squatting was observed after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, even after the completion of the rehabilitation program for return to sports. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between asymmetry in the knee extensor moment and pelvic rotation angle during double-leg squatting after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Twenty-four participants performed double-leg squatting. Kinetics and kinematics during squatting were analyzed using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system with 2 force plates. The limb symmetry index of knee extensor moment was predicted by the pelvic rotation angle (R 2 = .376, P = .001). In addition, the pelvic rotation and the limb symmetry index of the vertical ground reaction force independently explained the limb symmetry index of the knee extensor moment (R 2 = .635, P < .001, β of pelvic rotation = −0.489, β of vertical ground reaction force = 0.524). Pelvic rotation toward the involved limb was associated with a smaller knee extensor moment in the involved limb than in the uninvolved limb. The assessment of pelvic rotation would be useful for partially predicting asymmetry in the knee extensor moment during double-leg squatting. Minimizing pelvic rotation may improve the asymmetry in the knee extensor moment during double-leg squatting after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

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Ling Li, Yu Song, Maddy Jenkins, and Boyi Dai

Biomechanical behavior prior to landing likely contributes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries during jump-landing tasks. This study examined prelanding knee kinematics and landing ground reaction forces (GRFs) during single-leg and double-leg landings in males and females. Participants performed landings with the dominant leg or both legs while kinematic and GRF data were collected. Single-leg landings demonstrated less time between prelanding minimal knee flexion and initial ground contact, decreased prelanding and early-landing knee flexion angles and velocities, and increased peak vertical and posterior GRFs compared with double-leg landings. Increased prelanding knee flexion velocities and knee flexion excursion correlated with decreased peak posterior GRFs during both double-leg and single-leg landings. No significant differences were observed between males and females. Prelanding knee kinematics may contribute to the increased risk of ACL injuries in single-leg landings compared with double-leg landings. Future studies are encouraged to incorporate prelanding knee mechanics to understand ACL injury mechanisms and predict future ACL injury risks. Studies of the feasibility of increasing prelanding knee flexion are needed to understand the potential role of prelanding kinematics in decreasing ACL injury risk.

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Thaneswaran Marthammuthu, Farizah Mohd Hairi, Wan Yuen Choo, Nur Afiqah Mohd Salleh, and Noran Naqiah Hairi

While physical activity ensures healthy aging, rural community-dwelling older women tend to be more physically inactive compared with their counterparts in Malaysia. As social support is one of the key determinants of physical activity, this retrospective, cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of physical activity and its association with social support among 1,221 rural community-dwelling older women in Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The prevalence of physical activity among older women was 45.1% with the highest prevalence reported for housework domain (52.3%). The total mean Duke Social Support index score was 27.24 ± 3.40. Multivariate analysis reported age, employment status, and income level to demonstrate significant association with the physical activity after adjusting for confounders. Older women with an increase in social interaction score were more likely (odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval [1.10, 1.34]; p < .001) to have high physical activity when adjusted for sociodemographic, health, mental health, and physical disability. Contrarily, older women with an increase in one subjective social support score were less likely (odds ratio = 0.91; 95% confidence interval [0.87, 0.96]; p < .001) to have high physical activity when adjusted for confounders. The findings were insightful to tailor interventions on promoting social support for physical activity enhancement among older women.

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Popi Sotiriadou, Leah Brokmann, and Jason Doyle

The use of social media is reflective of an individual’s culture. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the cultural context on Australian and Singaporean sportswomen’s uses of social media. In-depth interviews with 12 elite sportswomen from both countries combined with supplementary information collected through the participating athletes’ Instagram profiles showed that social media uses are influenced by uncertainty avoidance, individualism or collectivism, masculinity or femininity, and long- or short-term orientations. By applying Hofstede and Bond’s cultural dimensions framework, the study presents new knowledge on three cultural dimensions (i.e., uncertainty avoidance, masculinity vs. femininity, and long-term vs. short-term orientation) and broadens the field of sport and social media by comparing the use of social media between athletes from diverse cultures. The study offers significant insight for designing a branding strategy that encompasses cultural contexts to guide athletes on their use of social media.