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Julia Hussien and Diane Ste-Marie

The focus of attention literature has shown robust findings for the benefits of providing statements that focus on the movement effect or outcome (external focus of attention [EFOA]) as opposed to focusing on the movement kinematics (internal focus of attention). Observational studies, however, have revealed that physiotherapists use fewer EFOA statements than internal focus of attention statements in their practice. Most evidence in this regard has been from non-Canadian physiotherapists working in stroke rehabilitation; consequently, we sought to examine whether Canadian physiotherapists working with various rehabilitation populations also use EFOA statements to a lesser extent than internal focus of attention statements. The “Therapists’ Perceptions of Motor Learning Principles Questionnaire (TPMLPQ)” was thus designed and data from 121 Canadian physiotherapists showed low relative frequencies of EFOA use (31.3% ± 14%) averaged across six hypothetical scenarios. A higher EFOA was reported, however, for two of the six scenarios: a functional reaching scenario (55.5% ± 37.0%) and pelvic floor task (65.6% ±32.9%). This data suggest that the findings of EFOA benefits have not been widely translated into Canadian physiotherapy settings; furthermore, the findings of the scenario-dependency warrant future investigation into factors, such as task characteristics, that may influence physiotherapists’ FOA use.

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Claire Marie Jie Lin Goh, Nan Xin Wang, Andre Matthias Müller, Rowena Yap, Sarah Edney, and Falk Müller-Riemenschneider

Background: Smartphones and wrist-worn activity trackers are increasingly popular for step counting purposes and physical activity promotion. Although trackers from popular brands have frequently been validated, the accuracy of low-cost devices under free-living conditions has not been adequately determined. Objective: To investigate the criterion validity of smartphones and low-cost wrist-worn activity trackers under free-living conditions. Methods: Participants wore a waist-worn Yamax pedometer and seven different low-cost wrist-worn activity trackers continuously over 3 days, and an activity log was completed at the end of each day. At the end of the study, the number of step counts reflected on the participants’ smartphone for each of the 3 days was also recorded. To establish criterion validity, step counts from smartphones and activity trackers were compared with the pedometers using Pearson’s correlation coefficient, mean absolute percentage error, and intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: Five of the seven activity trackers underestimated step counts and the remaining two and the smartphones overestimated step counts. Criterion validity was consistently higher for the activity trackers (r = .78–.92; mean absolute percentage error 14.5%–36.1%; intraclass correlation coefficient: .51–.91) than the smartphone (r = .37; mean absolute percentage error 55.7%; intraclass correlation coefficient: .36). Stratified analysis showed better validity of smartphones among female than for male participants. Phone wearing location also affected accuracy. Conclusions: Low-cost trackers demonstrated high accuracy in recording step counts and can be considered with confidence for research purposes or large-scale health promotion programs. The accuracy of using a smartphone for measuring step counts was substantially lower. Factors such as phone wear location and gender should also be considered when using smartphones to track step counts.

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Daniel das Virgens Chagas, Kylie Hesketh, Katherine Downing, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, and Lisa M. Barnett

Background: Understanding how or whether sedentary behavior affects motor competence in young children is important considering that children spend a lot of time sedentary. The aim of this study was to examine whether sedentary behavior predicts motor competence in young children. Methods: A longitudinal study with a total of 372 children aged 3.5 years at baseline and 5 years at follow-up was conducted. Objectively measured activity patterns (i.e., using accelerometers) were conducted in a subsample with 188 children. Sedentary behavior was assessed both objectively and subjectively (parent-reported screen time). Locomotor and object control skill scores were determined using the Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition. A multivariable analysis was executed adjusting for potential confounders (such as age, sex, time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, monitor wear time, body mass index z scores, and maternal education). Results: Sedentary behavior at either time point was not significantly associated with either locomotor or object control skills after adjusting for potential confounders. Discussion: Our results did not support the assumption that sedentary behavior affects motor competence in young children. Regardless, given the lack of consistency in the evidence base, we recommend to parents, educators, and health professionals that sedentary activities should be kept within government recommendations due to potential negative effects on child development.

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Harry K. Warburton and Matthew J. Slater

The present study examined the influence of an online relationship-oriented personal-disclosure Mutual-Sharing (ROPDMS) intervention upon diverse measures of group functioning during a national lockdown. Twelve soccer coaches and one senior member of staff from a professional female soccer academy participated by openly disclosing and sharing unknown personal stories with one another. Social identity dimensions (in-group ties, cognitive centrality, and in-group affect), friendship identity content, social support, self-esteem, and a nonequivalent dependent variable were measured across four time points, while social validation was obtained immediately and 4 weeks after ROPDMS. Quantitative data revealed significant increases for in-group ties, cognitive centrality, and friendship identity content after ROPDMS, while the nonequivalent dependent variable did not significantly change. Qualitative data revealed that the coaching staff felt the session was worthwhile and enhanced aspects of team functioning. Online ROPDMS therefore appears to be a viable team-building method for practitioners seeking to strengthen social identity dimensions and friendship identity content during a national lockdown.

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Fábio Y. Nakamura, Júlio A. Costa, Bruno Travassos, Daniel Ortuño, and José Pino-Ortega

Purpose: To investigate the internal training loads of a professional Spanish female futsal team throughout 26 weeks of training including preseason and in-season weeks and verify the impact of training period and/or training load magnitudes on heart-rate variability responses. Furthermore, we aimed to assess, intraindividually, the relationship between training load and the coefficient of variation (CV) of weekly natural log of the root mean square difference of successive normal interbeat (RR) intervals (lnRMSSDCV), obtained from ∼5 measures per week, and recorded in the seated position. Methods: A within-subject design involved 12 high-level outfield female futsal players (mean [SD] age: 23.9 [3.4] y). Results: lnRMSSD was significantly lower and lnRMSSDCV was significantly higher during the preseason (weeks 1–6) compared to in-season (weeks 7–26) (P < .001). Individually, players presented moderate to large negative correlations between lnRMSSDCV and lnRMSSD during the 26 weeks of observation. Correlations ranged between r player4 = −.41 (95% CI, −.69 to −.02) and r player12 = −.55 (−.78 to −.18). Players also presented moderate to very large positive correlations between lnRMSSDCV and session rating of perceived exertion. Correlations ranged between r player7 = .41 (.04 to .71) and r player1 = .71 (.45 to .86). Conclusion: Professional female futsal players in this study presented increased lnRMSSD and reduced lnRMSSDCV during 20 weeks into the competitive season compared to 6 weeks of preseason. Furthermore, lnRMSSDCV was negatively associated with lnRMSSD on an intraindividual basis. Finally, higher internal training loads were positively correlated with lnRMSSDCV, indicating that heart-rate variability is responsive to weekly training loads.

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Zoe Louise Moffat, Paul Joseph McCarthy, Lindsey Burns, and Bryan McCann

Life-span perspectives illustrate the critical features of development that clients experience; however, little evidence exists to illustrate how to integrate these approaches or use them in sport and exercise contexts. Attending to a clients’ developmental stage is a critical component of ethical and effective professional practice. We present an account of how we considered, selected, or dismissed components of life-span perspectives throughout the stages of service delivery with James, a youth sport athlete presenting with “choking” difficulties. The life-span approach offered a context to understand James’s presenting difficulty to determine the appropriateness and applicability of intervention, and acknowledged bias and experience of the psychologist.

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Janet Hauck and Isabella Felzer-Kim

Background: This study investigated the effect of an adapted physical activity (APA) course on knowledge and perceptions of preservice trainees regarding physical activity (PA) and autism spectrum disorder in 3 areas: knowledge/perspectives, importance and ease of improving developmental domains, and importance and ease of improving motor skills. Methods: Four hundred upper-level undergraduate students were recruited to participate in this survey-based study (251 APA students and 149 non-APA students participated). Survey data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of variance. Results: Participants estimated that the moderate to vigorous PA recommendations are 39.34 minutes per day, that 46.65% of moderate to vigorous PA occurs during school, and that 61.03% of children have motor difficulties. Participants perceived activities of daily living, sleep habits, and heart health as the easiest domains to improve, and problem behaviors, social skills, and self-esteem as the most difficult domains to improve. Knowledge/perspectives regarding autism spectrum disorder and PA were different by APA exposure (F 12,324 = 3.11, P < .001). Differences included self-efficacy in providing PA advice, knowledge of PA guidelines, and willingness to provide motor assessment referrals. Students differed by APA exposure in the importance of developmental domains (F 8,381 = 4.37, P < .001) but not ease of improving those domains. Conclusion: Results suggest that APA education and contact with children with disabilities improves self-efficacy, perspectives, and knowledge of PA and motor concerns in children with autism spectrum disorder.

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Ebrahim Banitalebi, Elahe Banitalebi, Majid Mardaniyan Ghahfarokhi, Mostafa Rahimi, Ismail Laher, and Kade Davison

We designed to evaluate the effects of resistance elastic band exercises (REBEs) on cardiometabolic/obesity-related biomarkers in older females with osteosarcopenic obesity. Sixty-three patients (aged 65–80 years) with osteosarcopenic obesity and a body mass index exceeding 30 kg/m2 were enrolled in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (REBE, n = 32) or a usual care group (n = 31). The experimental group completed a 12-week REBE program, three times a week and 60 min per session. There were decreases in lipid accumulation product (p = .033), visceral adipose index (p = .001), triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (p = .034), and atherogenic index of plasma (p = .028) in the experimental group compared with the usual care group. Our findings highlight the importance of an REBE program in improving combined cardiometabolic/obesity-related indices in older women with osteosarcopenic obesity. The incorporation of an REBE program may benefit individuals who are unable to tolerate or participate in more strenuous exercise programs.

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Wonyul Bae, Kim Hahn, and Minseok Cho

With a growing number of people using social media such as Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter, it has become extremely important for professional athletes to build and promote their personal brands through social media. The purpose of this study was to understand how LPGA Tour Korean golfers use social media for self-presentation. Through content analysis, the self-presentation forms of the top six Korean LPGA Tour golfers were examined. The result showed that the golfers are more likely to use the form of the front stage rather than the backstage. The number of likes and comments is higher when golfers post backstage photos and write photo stories in both Korean and English languages on Instagram. This study contributes to the field of sport social media research theoretically with new subcategorization to Goffman’s self-presentation and suggests a new insight into personal brand marketing strategies via social media for both athletes and sponsors.