Context: Wall push-up plus (WPP) and wall slide (WS) are commonly prescribed in early rehabilitation to increase serratus anterior (SA) muscle activity. For individuals with scapular winging (SW), synergistic muscles such as upper trapezius (UT) and pectoralis major (PM) may compensate for weak SA during scapular movement. However, no studies have applied isometric horizontal abduction (IHA) during WS in individuals with SW nor have compared it with WPP with IHA. Objectives: This study compared the effects of IHA on shoulder muscle activity during WPP and WS exercises in individuals with SW. Design: Cross-sectional study; 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of observed differences in SA, UT, PM, lower trapezius (LT), and infraspinatus (IS) muscle activities. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients: We recruited 30 individuals with SW comprising 20 men and 10 women. Interventions: The individuals performed WPP and WS exercises with and without IHA using Thera-Band. Main Outcome Measures: Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity of the SA, UT, PM, LT, and IS during the isometric phase of WPP and WS. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions were recorded to normalize electromyographic data. Results: There was no significant interaction between IHA application and exercise type for any of the shoulder muscles. IHA application increased SA (P = .008), UT (P = .001), LT (P = .009), and IS (P = .000) activities and decreased PM (P = .001) activity compared with those without IHA. WS exercises elicited higher PM (P = .017) and LT (P = .011) activities than WPP. Conclusion: WPP and WS with IHA may be effective in increasing the muscle activities of shoulder stabilizers and preventing overactivation of PM activity. WPP may be recommended for individuals with overactivated PM, whereas WS may be used to increase LT activity.
Seok-Hyun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Chung-Hwi Yi, Ji-Hyun Lee, and Seung-Min Baik
Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Matt Laurent, Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Luis Felipe Castelli Correa de Campos, and Ciro Winckler
Context: One of the primary training variables, although often overlooked, is recovery level achieved before starting subsequent training sessions. To find a more practical measurement that is consonant with the daily training routine, the Perceived Recovery Status (PRS) scale is proposed. In this perspective, the present study aimed to translate and culturally adapt the PRS scale into Brazilian Portuguese. Design: This was a clinical measurement. Methods: The cross-cultural translation was performed according to guidelines. Linguistic validation consisted of 5 stages: forward translation, translation synthesis, back translation, analysis of inconsistencies, and cognitive debriefing. Results: During forward translation, different interpretations were obtained from the 2 translators (versions V1 and V2). Supported by an expert committee, a combined version (V3) was obtained from V1 and V2. During back translation, different interpretations were obtained from the 2 translators (versions V4 and V5). Discrepancies, applicability, and cultural equivalence were documented and analyzed by the expert committee participating in the cross-cultural translation procedure. During the cognitive debriefing, a group of 5 Brazilian people from the general population were asked to participate in a cognitive debriefing to assess the comprehensibility of the translated items. Conclusions: The PRS was translated and culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese (PRS-Brasil).
David J. Scott, Massimiliano Ditroilo, Samuel T. Orange, and Phil Marshall
Purpose: To compare the effects of variable-resistance complex training (VRCT) versus traditional complex training (TCT) on strength, power, speed, and leg stiffness (Kleg) in rugby league players during a 6-week mesocycle. Methods: Twenty-four rugby league players competing in the British University and Colleges Sport Premier North Division were randomized to VRCT (n = 8), TCT (n = 8), or control (CON; n = 8). Experimental groups completed a 6-week lower-body complex training intervention (2×/wk) that involved alternating high-load resistance exercise with plyometric exercise within the same session. The VRCT group performed resistance exercises at 70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) + 0% to 23% of 1RM from band resistance with a 90-second intracontrast rest interval, whereas the TCT group performed resistance exercise at 93% of 1RM with a 4-minute intracontrast rest interval. Back-squat 1RM, countermovement jump peak power, reactive strength index, sprint times, and Kleg were assessed pretraining and posttraining. Results: VRCT and TCT significantly improved 1RM back squat, countermovement jump peak power, and 5-m sprint time (all P < .05). VRCT also improved Kleg, whereas TCT improved 10- and 20-m sprint times (all P < .05). Between groups, both VRCT and TCT improved 1RM back squat compared with CON (both P < .001). Additionally, VRCT improved Kleg compared with CON (right leg: P = .016) and TCT improved 20-m sprint time compared with CON (P = .042). Conclusions: VRCT and TCT can be implemented during the competitive season to improve strength, power, and 5-m sprint time. VRCT may lead to greater improvements in reactive strength index and Kleg, whereas TCT may enhance 10- and 20-m sprint times.
Alex M. Wolfe, Maria A. Pessman, Kelly R. Laurson, Dale D. Brown, and Ryan A. Brown
Purpose: This study examined differences in measures of health-related physical fitness in adolescents before and after extended school closures due to COVID-19. Method: The sample consisted of 298 students (135 males and 163 females) from a laboratory high school. Data were collected through FITNESSGRAM assessments. A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance was calculated to analyze differences in fitness before and after COVID-19 closures, including McNemar–Bowker and McNemar tests. Results: Statistically significant differences were identified for Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (−4.2%; 1.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) and curl-up (−12.5%; 7.9 repetitions). In addition, 18.8% fewer students were classified within the Healthy Fitness Zone for Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run, 4% for curl-up, 10.8% for push-up, and 6.4% for sit and reach. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrate that there was a significant decline in physical fitness for secondary students during extended school closures and social isolation as a result of COVID-19.
Richard P. Troiano
Accelerometer technology and applications have expanded and evolved rapidly over approximately the past two decades. This commentary, which reflects content presented at a keynote presentation at 8th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM 2022), discusses aspects of this evolution from the author’s perspective. The goal is to provide historical context for newer investigators working with device-based measures of physical activity. The presentation includes discussion of the fielding of accelerometer devices in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, selected recommendations from relevant workshops between 2004 and 2010, and the author’s perspective on the current status of accelerometer use in population surveillance and public health. The important role of collaboration is emphasized.
Timothy Jones, Justine Allen, and Stephen Macdonald
The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the peer-reviewed literature on the role of the coach developer (CD). Three questions guided this review: (a) who is the CD, (b) what do they do, and (c) how do they do it? Using five electronic databases—SPORTDiscus, ERIC, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Scopus—a total of 595 articles were initially found with 42 identified as appropriate for inclusion following PRISMA guidelines. A further 11 were added, via the screening of reference lists and during the process of writing, to total 53 articles. Data analysis comprised of content analysis to describe and identify gaps in the research, and reflexive thematic analysis to facilitate the analysis of the findings from the included studies. Content analysis findings show an increase in researching this role and a breadth of methodology and theoretical frameworks being employed. Utilising reflexive thematic analysis, seven themes were generated to understand the who, what, and how of the CD. Findings suggest a diverse and contextualised appreciation of the various roles the CD undertakes as encompassed by the International Council for Coaching Excellence (ICCE) umbrella term definition. The discussion reveals the complexity of the role as CDs navigate who they are, what they do, and how they do it. Recommendations are made for future research to mediate knowledge gaps and move towards alignment and understanding of this key figure.
Luísa V. Pinto, Filipa C. Gouveia, Joana F. Ramalho, Sara R. Silva, and Joana R. Silva
Context: Horse riding (HR) has gain popularity in Portugal, thereby increasing the number of related injuries. This study identifies frequently occurring injuries in Portuguese riders, the conditions under which they occur, and preventive measures. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Methods: We included 216 Portuguese riders practicing HR at the time of the study with ≥1 year of experience. Data were obtained from a questionnaire that characterized first and second rider injuries; we opted for a systematic method to assess the riders’ injuries, in a temporal order. Questions regarding demographic data, sports-related background, systematic training workload, number and characteristics of the first 2 injuries, and the need for treatment were included in the questionnaire. Results: Most first and second injuries were musculoskeletal, occurred from falling off the horse during training, and primarily affected the lower limb. Rehabilitation was required in almost 50% of all cases. The occurrence of injury was significantly associated with the number of days of training per week, years of experience, height and weight of the rider, and practice of another sport. Riding different horses was also significantly associated with the number of injuries. Conclusions: The most frequently occurring injuries during HR are musculoskeletal and in the extremities. Injury prevention is essential in HR, as most riders have at least one injury while practicing. Rehabilitation should involve a physiatrist and core strengthening exercises.
Chaiane Calonego, Cristine Lima Alberton, Samarita Beraldo Santagnello, Gustavo Zaccaria Schaun, Cristiane Rios Petrarca, Daniel Umpierre, Elisa Gouvêa Portella, Luana Siqueira Andrade, Rochele Barboza Pinheiro, Maria Laura Brizio Gomes, Mariana Silva Häfele, Gabriela Barreto David, Ronei Silveira Pinto, João Saldanha Henkin, and Stephanie Santana Pinto
Background: To determine the effect of resistance training volume on physical and perceptual outcomes of breast cancer survivors submitted to a combined training program. Design: Randomized single-blinded study. Methods: Nineteen breast cancer survivor women were randomized to a single-set (SS) or a multiple-set (MS) group. Both groups completed an 8-week combined training intervention in which the SS and MS groups performed 1 and 3 sets per resistance exercise, respectively. The following outcomes were assessed preintervention and postintervention: maximal knee extension dynamic strength (1-repetition maximum), quadriceps muscle thickness, peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life. Results: Both interventions increased knee extension 1-repetition maximum (SS: 29.8% [37.5%]; MS: 19.3% [11.8%]), quadriceps muscle thickness (9.4% [4.1%]; 8.9% [5.9%]), and quality of life (4.3% [6.3%]; 7.9% [9.0%]), with no difference between the groups. However, only MS improved cancer-related fatigue (−2.1% [1.7%]) and time to exhaustion (21.3% [14.9%]), whereas peak oxygen uptake remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusions: Cancer-related fatigue and time to exhaustion, improved only in the MS group after the intervention. On the other hand, similar knee extension 1-repetition maximum, quadriceps muscle thickness, and quality of life improvements were observed in breast cancer survivors irrespective of the resistance training volume performed.
Mai ChinAPaw and Manou Anselma
We strongly believe that diversity, equity, and inclusion in research lead to better science, more innovations and more relevant outcomes that better serve society at large. Historically, scientific research is quite WEIRD, meaning that it is dominated by researchers and study samples from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic countries. Such WEIRD research leads to results that better serve a small, privileged group of WEIRD people, widening health inequalities. Research among a selective group with similar backgrounds and perspectives results in bias and hinders innovation. As a result, we end up missing out on the valuable holistic viewpoint that more inclusive research would gain. In this invited commentary based on the International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM) 2022 keynote presentation by Prof. ChinAPaw, we discuss the importance of diversity, equity, and inclusion in research and introduce our vision for AWESOME science—All-inclusive, Worldwide ranging, Equitable, Sincere, Open-minded, Mindful of our own implicit bias, and Essential—that is more inclusive and relevant for everyone regardless of who they are and where they live. More diversity, equity, and inclusion make our collective dance toward healthy societies more beautiful and impactful!
Sophie Grimson, Gary Brickley, Nicholas J. Smeeton, Adam Brett, and Will Abbott
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between training load and subjective wellness in English Premier League goalkeepers (GKs) and examine potential positional differences in subjective wellness. Methods: A total of 34 players (GK = 7, outfield = 27) completed a daily subjective wellness questionnaire assessing sleep quality, sleep hours, fatigue, mood, soreness, and total wellness over two and a half seasons. Ten-Hertz GPS devices were worn during training to calculate previous-day and 7-day total distance, player load, total dives, total dive load, average time to feet, and high, medium, and low jumps. Results: All previous 7-day training loads were associated with all wellness markers (r = .073 to .278, P < .05). However, associations between previous 7-day dive load and mood, average time to feet, and both sleep quality and quantity, and between low jumps and sleep quality, were not significant. For previous-day metrics, total distance was associated with all wellness markers (r = .097 to .165, P < .05). In addition, player load and high jump were associated with fatigue, soreness, and wellness (r = .096 to .189, P < .05). Total dives and soreness were also related (r = .098, P < .05), and relationships were evident between average time to feet, medium jumps, and all wellness markers excluding sleep quality (r = .114 to .185, P < .05). No positional differences in subjective wellness occurred (P > .05). Conclusion: Some GK GPS variables are associated with subjective wellness, which could inform training-load prescription to maximize recovery and performance. In addition, GKs are no more vulnerable to poorer subjective wellness when compared with outfield players.