This study examined whether table tennis as a method of sensorimotor training improves haptic and motor function and to what extent haptic function gain correlates with changes in motor ability in children with probable developmental coordination disorder (pDCD). Children with pDCD were randomly assigned to the table tennis and nontraining control groups. The children in the table tennis group received 36 sessions of table tennis training, including ball balancing, hitting the ball against the wall, strokes, and serving. Haptic sensitivity, acuity, and motor function domains were measured. The results showed a 41.5% improvement in haptic sensitivity in children exposed to table tennis training compared with 2.8% in those without training. This improved haptic sensitivity significantly correlated with motor function gain, suggesting that somatosensory gains occur simultaneously with changes in motor function in children with pDCD. This novel upper limb motor training approach may be an interesting method of sensorimotor training in neurological rehabilitation in children with pDCD.
Yu-Ting Tseng, Chia-Liang Tsai, Tzu Hsuan Wu, Yi-Wen Chen, and Yi-Hsuan Lin
Shruti Patelia, Alia Mazhar, and Joseph Baker
Issues relating to older adults in sport are ongoing topics of interest among sport scientists; however, our knowledge on how older athletes have been studied is incomplete, which has implications for understanding the comprehensiveness of this evidence base. This scoping review aimed to provide an overview of how sport and older adults have been studied since the first World Masters Games. Data on research topics, research methods, sport-specific information, and demographic information on older athletes were collected and reviewed. Results suggest older athletes who are White, male, and competitive athletes have largely been the focus of research. In addition, results highlight an alarming number of unreported data related to the demographics of athlete samples. As a result, the well-documented benefits of sport may reflect a homogenous group of older adults, limiting our overall understanding of aging and sport and the value of this research for developing evidence-informed policy.
Nima Dehghansai, Alia Mazhar, and Joseph Baker
Research pertaining to the experiences and motives of Paralympic athletes who transfer between sports is scant. This study aimed to address this gap through semistructured interviews with Canadian Paralympic coaches (n = 35) and athletes (n = 12). Three higher-order themes of “alternative to retirement,” “career extension,” and “compatibility” were identified. The subthemes of “psychobehavioral” and “physical and physiological” (from the higher-order theme of alternative to retirement) captured reasons leading to transfer, which are similar to reasons athletes may consider retirement. The subthemes of career extension—“better opportunities” and “beneficial outcomes”—shed light on factors that contributed to the withdrawal of negative experiences and reinforcement of positive outcomes associated with transferring sports. Last, compatibility had three subthemes of “resources,” “sport-specific,” and “communication,” which encapsulated factors athletes should consider prior to their transfer. In conclusion, the participants highlighted the importance of transparent and effective communication between athletes and sports to align and establish realistic expectations for everyone involved.
Qian Zhang, Liang Zhang, Bing Yan, and Olivier Girard
Purpose: To quantify the acute effects of a spectrum of eccentric load reductions on neuromechanical adjustments during the performance of weighted jump squats (WJSs). Methods: On separate days, 16 well-trained participants performed WJS trials with various eccentric load reductions (0% [body mass only], 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% [standard WJS] of concentric load) with a mechanical braking unit, while concentric load was set at 30% of peak isometric squat force in all trials. A force platform and a motion-capture system were used to assess neuromuscular performance. Results: Peak power output was 6.2% (4.7%) higher when load was reduced by 50% versus 0% (55.4 [7.8] vs 51.9 [7.6] W/kg; P = .001). Compared with no braking (0.326 [0.059] m), jump height was ∼13% to 17% higher for all eccentric load reduction conditions (all P < .001). Vertical ground reaction forces were progressively lower for 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% loading conditions (–22.1% [14.6%], –32.3% [10.8%], –42.0% [13.2%], and –46.1% [14.7%]; all P ≤ .001) in reference to body mass only. Conclusion: Eccentric load reduction is advantageous compared with traditional isoinertial loading for improving both jump height and peak power output during the concentric portion of maximal-effort WJS. This practice also decreases mechanical constraints in the lower extremities, which may become beneficial for load-compromised individuals.
Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Martin Aldoson, and Charlotte Downing
Using a case study design, we explored two ballet dancers’ perfectionism experiences via interviews and questionnaires at two time points 5 years apart. They represented the two types of “pure perfectionism” in the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism: a female representing pure personal standards perfectionism (high perfectionistic strivings, low perfectionistic concerns) and a male representing pure evaluative concerns perfectionism (low perfectionistic strivings, high perfectionistic concerns). The pure personal standards perfectionism dancer reported stable perfectionism across time, seemingly resilient to any perfectionistic concerns developing. She attributed this to her stable, grounded personality, also reporting autonomous motivation and performance success. The dancer representing pure evaluative concerns perfectionism reported increased perfectionistic strivings and lowered perfectionistic concerns over time; concurrently, his motivation became less controlled and more autonomous. He described the reasons in terms of improved basic psychological needs satisfaction and personal growth. Overall, autonomy might be important in mitigating perfectionism.
This paper analyzes a series of advertisements from the antidrug campaign Above the Influence and interviews of former National Football League and National Basketball Association players by the website Bleacher Report regarding their marijuana use. Guided by Christina Sharpe’s theoretical concept of the “wake,” I argue that the Above the Influence adverts produce a trope I call Chronic Black male sporting hood. A trope that holds the Black body in a state of dehumanization. The second half of this paper utilizes Sharpe’s Black methodological tool of Black annotation/redaction. Through this Black methodological tool, the testimonial of the athletes, and the influences of Black musicians, I argue that these athletes provide insight into alternative ways of living and being human that arise from the anti-Black practices of sport with marijuana serving as their catalyst.
Kirsten Dillon-Rossiter, Madison Hiemstra, Nina Bartmann, Wuyou Sui, Marc Mitchell, Scott Rollo, Paul A. Gardiner, and Harry Prapavessis
Office workers who transitioned to working from home are spending an even higher percentage of their workday sitting compared with being “in-office” and this is an emerging health concern. With many office workers continuing to work from home since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative to have a validated self-report questionnaire to assess sedentary behavior, break frequency, and duration, to reduce the cost and burden of using device-based assessments. This secondary analysis study aimed to validate the modified Last 7-Day Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SIT-Q 7d) against an activPAL4™ device in full-time home-based “office” workers (n = 148; mean age = 44.90). Participants completed the modified SIT-Q 7d and wore an activPAL4 for a full work week. The findings showed that the modified SIT-Q 7d had low (ρ = .35–.37) and weak (ρ = .27–.28) criterion validity for accurate estimates of break frequency and break duration, respectively. The 95% limits of agreement were large for break frequency (26.85–29.01) and medium for break duration (5.81–8.47), indicating that the modified SIT-Q 7d may not be appropriate for measuring occupational sedentary behavior patterns at the individual level. Further validation is still required before confidently recommending this self-report questionnaire to be used among this population to assess breaks in sedentary time.
Anqi Deng and Ang Chen
Purpose: Cognitive load theory focuses on providing appropriate cognitive engagement to facilitate knowledge learning. The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions of cognitive load on high school students’ in-class physical activity. Method: A stratified random sample of high school students (N = 150) who participated in a large curriculum intervention study provided the data. A path analysis and Hayes’ PROCESS analysis were used to test a correlation model and moderation effect from gender and race. Results: The results showed that the reasoning learning tasks directly contributed to their in-class physical activity (path coefficient = .54, p < .01) and the gender and race factors were not significant moderators (p > .05). Conclusion: The findings imply that high cognitive load tasks can facilitate in-class physical activity. The findings suggest the power of the concept-based physical education curriculum in providing productive learning opportunities to all students.
Sam N. Thrower, Christopher M. Spray, and Chris G. Harwood
The purpose of the current study was to utilize the RE-AIM (i.e., reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework to evaluate the national-level scale-out of the Lawn Tennis Association’s “Optimal Competition Parenting Workshop” (OCPW) across a 4-year period. During 2018, 65 workshops were run across the United Kingdom, 1,043 parents registered, and 933 parents attended. Adopting a quasi-experimental design, multilevel analyses revealed significant increases in parents’ (n = 130) task goal orientation and competition tennis parenting efficacy, as well as significant decreases in ego goal orientation and unpleasant emotions. Children’s perceptions of both mother- and father-initiated ego-involving motivational climate and their own ego goal orientation significantly decreased across time. From 2019 to 2021, a further 64 workshops were delivered to 1,110 parents with no significant differences in parents’ satisfaction, enjoyment, instructor evaluation, or transfer intention over time when compared against workshop evaluations in 2018. Overall, the OCPW represents a well-received, practical, and effective brief intervention for enhancing parental involvement in junior tennis.