Purpose: To investigate whether sleeping activity, hormonal responses, and wellness are altered in elite water polo players during their preparation toward the Tokyo Olympics. Methods: Eight elite-level water polo players participated in 3 consecutive training phases: (1) before the commencement of a residential-based conditioning camp (PRE-CAMP; 3 d), (2) residential-based conditioning camp (5 d), and (3) a congested period of training and competition (POST-CAMP; 8 d). Nocturnal sleep was monitored for 14 consecutive days in PRE-CAMP (2 d), CAMP (5 d), and POST-CAMP (7 d). Postawakening salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin-A, and subjective wellness were measured during PRE-CAMP, CAMP, and POST-CAMP, and internal training/match load (ITL) was calculated daily. The averaged values for dependent variables were compared among training phases and analyzed using linear mixed models. Results: At CAMP compared with PRE-CAMP, ITL was higher (P < .01), and sleep onset and offset were earlier (P < .01). At this period, sleep interruptions and salivary cortisol were higher (P < .01, d = 1.6, d = 1.9, respectively), and subjective wellness was worsened (P < .01, d = 1.3). At POST-CAMP, the reduction of workload was followed by increased sleep efficiency, reduced sleep interruptions, and moderately affected salivary cortisol, yet overall wellness remained unaltered. In POST-CAMP, 2 of the players demonstrated severe symptoms of illness. Conclusions: At the highest level of the sport and prior to the Olympics, large increments in workload during a training camp induced meaningful sleep interruptions and salivary cortisol increases, both of which were reversed at POST-CAMP. We suggest that the increased workload alongside the inadequate recovery affects sleep patterns and may increase the risk of infection.
Petros G. Botonis and Argyris G. Toubekis
Courtney Boucher and Nicole M. LaVoi
The underrepresentation of women head coaches of women’s teams at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level is well documented, and the percentage of women coaching women’s teams has remained stagnant at approximately 40%–43% for more than a decade. Documenting hiring patterns of individuals in positions of power is crucial to understanding why stagnation persists. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally examine the gender distribution of head coaches hired for women’s teams and statistically examine if the gender of the athletic director (AD) impacted who was hired. Data on head coach gender and AD gender were collected between the 2014–2015 and 2021–2022 academic years. Based on the data, gendered hiring patterns emerged. Results indicated that homologous reproduction was present in ADs’ hiring of head coaches of women’s teams. The findings can be used to increase awareness and motivate evidence-based action by holding ADs accountable for their hiring decisions. Findings illuminate the hiring processes in intercollegiate sport, which have numerous implications for women sport coaches. Future research on factors such as external influences on the hiring process and the glass cliff phenomenon is warranted.
Alessandro Piras and Milena Raffi
In many daily and sport situations, people have to simultaneously perceive and process multiple objects and scenes in a short amount of time. A wrong decision may lead to a disadvantage for a team or for a single athlete, and during daily life (i.e., driving, surgery), it could have more dangerous consequences. Considering the results of different studies, the ability to distribute visual attention depends on different levels of expertise and environment-related constraints. This article is a narrative review of the current scientific evidence in the field of eye movements in sports, focusing on the role of microsaccades in sporting task situations. Over the past 10 years, microsaccades have become one of the most increasing areas of research in visual and oculomotor studies and even in the area of sport science. Here, we review the latest findings and discuss the relationships between microsaccades and attention, perception, and action in sports.
Paul Andrew Estabrooks
Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science can be described as the scientific study of the strategies and mechanisms by which scientific evidence is disseminated and implemented in community or clinical settings to improve outcomes for a specified population. This paper provides an overview of D&I science as it relates to health and physical activity promotion. It provides definitions and specifications for D&I strategies and an overview of the types of theories, models, and frameworks used to advance this work. Finally, this review demonstrated the need for physical activity researchers to (a) test relationships between changes in D&I explanatory constructs and D&I outcomes; (b) determine the utility of D&I strategies, based on explanatory theories, to improve intervention reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance; (c) develop strategies to take interventions to scale and reduce disparities; and (d) develop interventions and D&I strategies, in collaboration with those who would ultimately be responsible for implementation.
Lindsay Nettlefold, Samantha M. Gray, Joanie Sims-Gould, and Heather A. McKay
Darla Castelli and Christine Julien
Physical activity is a health-protective factor that can reduce disease risk in later life. Designing interventions that increase physical activity participation are paramount but need to increase potency and reduce the time to effectiveness. This paper aims to outline one transdisciplinary, team science effort to increase behavioral intervention potency through the integration of the autonomous cognition model whereby data guide each decision in developing a school-based physical activity intervention. Examples of data collected by stage and a summary of potential action steps are provided.
Paul M. Wright
Physical activity programs in school and community settings have the potential to foster positive youth development related to social and emotional learning. However, research findings and best practices that promote these outcomes are often not implemented in practice. The field of implementation science can help researchers understand and navigate the barriers to implementing what we know from research into policy and practice (i.e., to bridge the know-do gap). In this paper, after describing positive youth development, social emotional learning, and their application in physical activity settings, I share reflections from my engaged scholarship with the teaching personal and social responsibility model to illustrate ways my collaborators and I have tried to address the know-do gap. Lessons learned about ways that kinesiology researchers can actively support the implementation of our research in society are discussed.
Miguel Ángel Galán-Rioja, José María Gonzalez-Ravé, Fernando González-Mohíno, and Stephen Seiler
A well-planned periodized approach endeavors to allow road cyclists to achieve peak performance when their most important competitions are held. Purpose: To identify the main characteristics of periodization models and physiological parameters of trained road cyclists as described by discernable training intensity distribution (TID), volume, and periodization models. Methods: The electronic databases Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched using a comprehensive list of relevant terms. Studies that investigated the effect of the periodization of training in cyclists and described training load (volume, TID) and periodization details were included in the systematic review. Results: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Block periodization (characterized by employment of highly concentrated training workload phases) ranged between 1- and 8-week blocks of high-, medium-, or low-intensity training. Training volume ranged from 8.75 to 11.68 h·wk–1 and both pyramidal and polarized TID were used. Traditional periodization (characterized by a first period of high-volume/low-intensity training, before reducing volume and increasing the proportion of high-intensity training) was characterized by a cyclic progressive increase in training load, the training volume ranged from 7.5 to 10.76 h·wk–1, and pyramidal TID was used. Block periodization improved maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), peak aerobic power, lactate, and ventilatory thresholds, while traditional periodization improved VO2max, peak aerobic power, and lactate thresholds. In addition, a day-by-day programming approach improved VO2max and ventilatory thresholds. Conclusions: No evidence is currently available favoring a specific periodization model during 8 to 12 weeks in trained road cyclists. However, few studies have examined seasonal impact of different periodization models in a systematic way.
Ronald F. Zernicke and David H. Perrin
Rebecca E. Hasson, Lexie R. Beemer, Andria B. Eisman, and Penelope Friday
The adoption of classroom-based physical activity interventions in elementary schools is nearly universal (92%), but fewer than 22% of teachers who implement activity breaks achieve a dose of 10 min/day. Dissemination and implementation science frameworks provide a systematic approach to identifying and overcoming barriers likely to impede successful adoption and fidelity of evidence-based interventions. This review highlights the development and subsequent tailoring of a classroom-based physical activity intervention, Interrupting Prolonged sitting with ACTivity (InPACT), for delivery in low-resource schools using implementation science frameworks focused on equity. Unlike most classroom physical activity interventions, tailored InPACT includes a suite of implementation strategies (methods or techniques that support adoption, implementation, and sustainment of a program or practice) and, thus, has been designed for dissemination. These strategies were focused on increasing teacher self-efficacy and reducing multilevel implementation barriers in low-resource schools to promote intervention fidelity, effectiveness, and sustainment.