Volume 31 (2023): Issue 6 (Dec 2023)
Volume 17 (2023): Issue 4 (Dec 2023): JCSP Special Issue Burnout in Sport and Performance, Part 2
Volume 37 (2023): Issue 4 (Dec 2023)
Correlates of Fundamental Motor Skills in the Early Years (0–4 Years): A Systematic Review
Sanne L.C. Veldman, Jessica S. Gubbels, Amika S. Singh, Johan M. Koedijker, Mai J.M. Chinapaw, and Teatske M. Altenburg
Aim: This systematic review aims to summarize evidence on correlates of fundamental motor skills in typically developing children aged 0–4 years. Methods: A literature search (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus) was performed from 2000 till 23 May 2022. Inclusion criteria was cross-sectional and prospective studies examining associations between a potential correlate and fundamental motor skills in typically developing, apparently healthy children aged 0–4 years. Two independent reviewers performed screening and methodological quality assessment. Results: Eighty-three studies met eligibility criteria and were included. Thirteen studies were of high methodological quality. In children aged <1 year, we found no evidence for family income, breastfeeding-related, sleep-related, home environment, and socioeconomic variables. In children aged 1–2 years, we found no evidence for sex, growth-related variables, singleton birth, and family income. In children aged 2–4 years, we found no evidence for screen behavior, toxicity, parental education, family income, socioeconomic variables, and maternal depression/anxiety and moderate evidence for a positive association with early childhood education and care setting type. For other examined correlates, we found insufficient evidence (inconsistent findings or only one study available). Conclusions: We found insufficient evidence for over half of examined potential correlates of fundamental motor skills. We recommend investing in better research methodologies and improved reporting.
The Digital NBA: How the World’s Savviest League Brings the Court to Our Couch
Jiho Kim and Braden Norris
Effects of Breaking Up Sedentary Behavior With Short Bouts of Yoga and Tai-Chi on Glycemia, Concentration, and Well-Being
Alexander Colvin, Lynne Murray, Jillian Noble, and Sebastien Chastin
Background: Investigating the effects of breaking up sedentary behavior with short bouts of Yoga and Tai-Chi on glycemic control, concentration, and well-being in healthy individuals. Methods: In this randomized balanced incomplete block study, 15 adults (age = 26 [2.50] y, 8 females) completed 2 of 3 protocols: uninterrupted sitting (Control), sitting interrupted with 3 minutes of Yoga every 30 minutes, or with 3 minutes of Tai-Chi every 30 minutes. Protocols lasted 7.5 hours and included a standardized diet. Glucose was measured every 30 minutes with a glucometer (Abbott FreeStyle Libre). Concentration and well-being were recorded with self-reported ecological momentary assessment. Area under the curve was calculated for glucose data. Statistical analyses were performed as a hierarchical repeated-measures model. Results: Glucose area under the curve for the Yoga intervention (34.55 [3.12] mmol/L) was significantly lower than the Control (38.14 [3.18] mmol/L; P < .05). There was a trend toward lower glucose in the Tai-Chi group compared with the Control, but no significant differences were found (AUCTai-Chi = 36.64 [3.11] mmol/L; P = .57). Mean concentration in all groups decreased throughout the day, with the largest decrease in the Control. Well-being for the Yoga and Control groups decreased but increased with Tai-Chi. Concentration and well-being responses were not statistically significant between intervention groups. Conclusions: Breaking up sedentary behavior using 3-minute bouts of Yoga significantly lowers blood glucose in healthy individuals without compromising concentration or well-being. Tai-Chi did not provide the same significant effect on glucose levels but allowed better maintenance of concentration and well-being. These interventions provide effective ways to combat the deleterious effects of prolonged sedentary time while maintaining concentration and well-being.
“What Have I Learned . . . ” and How Did I Get There? Reflection on a Research Journey
Receiving a lifetime award allows one to pause and reflect on one’s research journey. In the spirit of Earle Zeigler himself, I reflect on: “What I have learned . . . ” on my research journey, and more specifically on how I got there. My research has always focused on the interaction between sport, economics, and society and evolved: “From socio-economic impacts on sport participation to socio-economic outcomes of sport events.” To cover 40 years of research, I am highlighting how: (a) “triggers,” (b) “influencers,” and (c) “lessons learned” intermingled to push my research agenda forward. This reflection proved to be a very gratifying exercise. I can highly recommend it to all researchers. Perhaps, this can become a stepping stone to be promoted to the rank of Prof. Emeritus or Emerita. Either way, sharing our experiences may trigger, inspire, and advance the learning of future generations of sport management scholars.
Latin Dance Effects on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Function in Middle-Aged and Older Latino Adults
Omar Lopez, Navin Kaushal, Michelle A. Jaldin, and David X. Marquez
We tested if a dance trial yielded improvements in physical function and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in middle-aged/older Latino adults. Physical activity was assessed using the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors, physical function with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) protocol, and estimated CRF with the Jurca nonexercise test model. Multivariate analysis of covariance models found significant change in SPPB protocol total scores, F(1, 329) = 4.23, p = .041, and CRF, F(1, 329) = 5.16, p = .024, between the two study arms in favor of the dance group. Mediation models found moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity to mediate to mediate between group and SPPB scores (β = 0.054, 95% confidence interval [0.0142, 0.1247]). Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and total physical activity were found to partially mediate between group and CRF (β = 0.02, 95% confidence interval [−0.0261, 0.0751]), with the direct pathway no longer being significant (p > .05). This provides support for Latin dance programs to have an effect on SPPB protocol and CRF.
Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy in Older Adults With Subjective Cognitive Impairments Affects Gait Parameters in the Spatial Navigation Task
Natalia Anna Pawlaczyk, Rafał Milner, Magdalena Szmytke, Bartłomiej Kiljanek, Bibianna Bałaj, Aleksandra Wypych, and Monika Lewandowska
Both navigation abilities and gait can be affected by the atrophy in the medial temporal cortex. This study aimed to determine whether navigation abilities could differentiate seniors with and without medial temporal lobe atrophy who complained about their cognitive status. The participants, classified to either the medial temporal atrophy group (n = 23) or the control group (n = 22) underwent neuropsychological assessment and performed a spatial navigation task while their gait parameters were recorded. The study showed no significant differences between the two groups in memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge or typical measures of navigating abilities. However, gait parameters, particularly the propulsion index during certain phases of the navigation task, distinguished between seniors with and without medial temporal lobe lesions. These findings suggest that the gait parameters in the navigation task may be a valuable tool for identifying seniors with cognitive complaints and subtle medial temporal atrophy.
The Psychometric Properties of Two Brief Measures of Teamwork in Sport
Desmond McEwan, Eesha J. Shah, Kaitlin L. Crawford, Patricia C. Jackman, Matt D. Hoffmann, Ethan Cardinal, Mark W. Bruner, Colin D. McLaren, and Alex J. Benson
In the current study, the structural and external validity of data derived from two shorter versions of the Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport (MATS) were examined using multilevel analyses. Evidence of model–data fit was shown for both a 5-factor model comprising 19 items (with subscales assessing teamwork preparation, execution, evaluation, adjustments, and management of team maintenance) and a single-factor model comprising five items (providing a global estimate of teamwork). In general, data from both versions were positively and significantly correlated with (and distinct from) athletes’ perceptions of team cohesion, collective efficacy, performance satisfaction, enjoyment in their sport, and commitment to their team and their coaches’ transformational leadership. The measures appear well suited to detect between-teams differences, as evidenced by intraclass correlation coefficients and acceptable reliability estimates of team-level scores. In summary, the 19-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Short and five-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport-Global provide conceptually and psychometrically sound questionnaires to briefly measure teamwork in sport.