Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 1,617 items for :

  • Pediatric Exercise Science x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Physical Activity and Motor Skill Development During Early Childhood: Investigating the Role of Parent Support

Maeghan E. James, Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Matthew Kwan, Sara King-Dowling, and John Cairney

Purpose: This study examined the relationship between parent physical activity (PA) support and children’s motor skill development and PA during early childhood and explored the potential moderating effect of child PA and motor skills on these relationships. Methods: Participants (N = 589, 250 girls, meanage = 4.93 [0.59] y) were part of a larger, longitudinal cohort study. Motor skills were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children—Second Edition. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Five items were used to measure parent support frequency (1 = none, 3 = 3–4 times, 5 = daily). Moderation analyses were conducted to examine the moderating effect of MVPA and motor skills on the relationship between parent support and motor skills and MVPA, respectively. Results: Parent support was significantly related to motor skills (B = 14.45, P = .007), and child MVPA significantly moderated this relationship (B = −0.17, P = .021). The relationship between parent support and child MVPA did not reach significance (B = 2.89, P = .051); however, motor skills had a significant moderating effect (B = −0.08, P = .022). Conclusions: These novel findings suggest parent PA support is related to child motor skills and PA during early childhood, but this relationship is context dependent. Child-level characteristics should be considered in future parent PA support research.

Restricted access

Long-Term Alterations in Pulmonary V ˙ O 2 and Muscle Deoxygenation On-Kinetics During Heavy-Intensity Exercise in Competitive Youth Cyclists: A Cohort Study

Matthias Hovorka, Bernhard Prinz, Dieter Simon, Manfred Zöger, Clemens Rumpl, and Alfred Nimmerichter

Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to assess alterations of pulmonary oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ) and muscle deoxygenation on-kinetics during heavy-intensity cycling in youth cyclists over a period of 15 months. Methods: Eleven cyclists (initial age, 14.3 [1.6] y; peak V ˙ O 2 , 62.2 [4.5] mL·min−1·kg−1) visited the laboratory twice on 3 occasions within 15 months. Participants performed an incremental ramp exercise test and a constant workrate test within the heavy-intensity domain during the first visit and second visit, respectively. Subsequently, parameter estimates of the V ˙ O 2 and muscle deoxygenation on-kinetics were determined with mono-exponential models. Results: The V ˙ O 2 phase II time constant decreased from occasion 1 (34 [4] s) to occasion 2 (30 [4] s, P = .005) and 3 (28 [4] s, P = .010). However, no significant alteration was observed between occasions 2 and 3 (P = .565). The V ˙ O 2 slow component amplitude either expressed in absolute values (ie, L·min−1) or relative to end exercise V ˙ O 2 (ie, %) showed no significant changes throughout the study (P = .972 and .996). Furthermore, the muscle deoxygenation on-kinetic mean response time showed no significant changes throughout the study (18 [8], 18 [3], and 16 [5] s for occasions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; P = .279). Conclusion: These results indicate proportional enhancements of local muscle oxygen distribution and utilization, which both contributed to the speeding of the V ˙ O 2 on-kinetics herein.

Restricted access

Maximal Aerobic Power, Quality of Life, and Ejection Fraction in Survivors of Childhood Cancer Treated with Anthracyclines

Maritza Martínez Tagle, Pavel Loeza Magaña, Alma Edith Benito Reséndiz, Iliana Lucatero Lecona, Farina Esther Arreguín González, and Alberto Chávez Delgado

Background: Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is a frequent complication that can occur at any stage of treatment, even in survivors. Objective: To determine maximum aerobic power, quality of life, and left ventricular ejection fraction in childhood cancer survivors treated with anthracyclines. Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: The left ventricular ejection fraction was obtained from the transthoracic echocardiogram report in the medical records. Each patient underwent a 6-minute walk test, assessment of maximum aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, and evaluation of perceived exertion using the EPInfant scale, and finally, their quality of life was evaluated using the pediatric quality of life inventory model. Results: A total of 12 patients were studied, with an average of 16.2 years of age. All patients exhibited a left ventricular ejection fraction >60%, the mean distance covered in the 6-minute walk test was 516.7 m, and the mean of the maximum aerobic power was 70 W. Low quality of life scores were obtained in the physical and psychosocial aspects. In the Pearson test, a weak correlation without statistical significance was found between all the variables studied. Conclusions: Simultaneously with the detection of cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors, it is pertinent to perform physical evaluations as physical condition and cardiotoxicity seem to be issues that are not necessarily dependent.

Restricted access

Parental Travel Behaviors and Children’s Independent Mobility: A MultiSite Study

Victoria Hecker, Sebastien Blanchette, Guy Faulkner, Negin A. Riazi, Mark S. Tremblay, François Trudeau, and Richard Larouche

Purpose: Children who are allowed greater independent mobility (IM) are more physically active. This study investigated associations between parents’ current travel mode to work, their own IM and school travel mode as a child, and their child’s IM. Methods: Children in grades 4 to 6 (n = 1699) were recruited from urban, suburban, and rural schools in Vancouver, Ottawa, and Trois-Rivières. Parents reported their current travel mode to work, IM, and school travel mode as a child. Children self-reported their IM using Hillman’s 6 mobility licenses. Multiple imputation was performed to replace missing data. Gender-stratified generalized linear mixed models were adjusted for child age, parent gender, urbanization, and socioeconomic status. Results: The older a parent was allowed to travel alone as a child, the less IM their child had (boys: β = −0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.13 to −0.04; girls: β = −0.09, 95% CI, −0.13 to −0.06). Girls whose parents biked to work (β = 0.45, 95% CI, 0.06–0.83) or lived in Trois-Rivières versus other sites (β = 0.82, 95% CI, −0.43 to 1.21) had higher IM. IM increased with each year of age (boys: β = 0.46, CI, 0.34–0.58; girls: β = 0.38, 95% CI, 0.28–0.48). Conclusion: Parents who experienced IM later may be more restrictive of their child’s IM. This may help explain the intergenerational decline in children’s IM.

Restricted access

Volume 36 (2024): Issue 2 (May 2024)

Open access

A 5-Week Guided Active Play Program Modulates Skin Microvascular Reactivity in Healthy Children

Asal Moghaddaszadeh, Emilie Roudier, Heather Edgell, Agnes Vinet, and Angelo N. Belcastro

Purpose: Children’s poor levels of physical activity (PA) participation and early-onset vascular aging are identified as global health challenges. Children’s guided activity play (GAP)-based PA programs have emerged as effective strategies to improve cardiovascular risk factors and health-related fitness. This study proposes to investigate whether GAP improves children’s cutaneous microvascular reactivity and health-related fitness. Methods: Children’s (n = 18; 9.8 [1.5] y) PA during a 5-week (4 d/wk; 1 h/d) GAP program was assessed (accelerometry) with preassessments and postassessments for anthropometric, musculoskeletal fitness, blood pressure, estimated aerobic power, and cutaneous microvascular reactivity. Results: PA averaged 556 (132) kcal·week−1 at 34.7% (7.5%) time at moderate to vigorous intensity. Resting heart rate (−9.5%) and diastolic blood pressure (−7.8%) were reduced without changes in health-related fitness indices. Cutaneous microvascular reactivity to sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis increased the average perfusion (+36.8%), average cutaneous vascular conductance (+30%), the area under the curve (+28.8%), and a faster rise phase (+40%) of perfusion (quadratic modeling; P ≤ .05). Chi-square and crosstabulation analysis revealed significant association between children’s PA levels and sodium nitroprusside average perfusion levels, where children with PA levels ≥205.1 kcal.55 minute−1 were overrepresented in the medium/high levels of sodium nitroprusside perfusion. Conclusion: A 5-week GAP modified the microvascular reactivity in children without changes in body mass, musculoskeletal fitness, or estimated aerobic power.

Restricted access

Effectiveness of a Preschool Motor Skill Intervention on Body Mass Index and Movement Behavior: 6-, 18-, and 30-Month Findings From a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

Line Grønholt Olesen, Anders Grøntved, Jan Christian Brønd, Lise Hestbæk, and Peter Lund Kristensen

Purpose: To study the effectiveness of a preschool staff-delivered motor skills intervention on body composition and physical activity over a 2.5-year time frame. Methods: In this pragmatic parallel cluster randomized controlled trial (16 preschools), outcome data were collected after 6 (body composition only), 18, and 30 months of intervention. The main physical activity outcomes were accelerometer behavior measures summarizing the total percentage of child daily movement (walk, run, cycle, and standing that included minor movements) and preschool movement during preschool attendance. To estimate between-group mean differences in outcomes, mixed-linear regression analyses including baseline value of the selected outcome and a treatment × time interaction term as a fixed effect were applied. In addition, the baseline preschool and child were included as a random effect. Results: For body mass index, a total of 437 children (90%) had at least one valid baseline and one follow-up assessment. The corresponding numbers for preschool movement and daily movement were 163 (55%) and 146 (49%), respectively. No significant between-group mean difference was identified for body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, or any physical activity outcomes. Conclusion: Overall, this preschool motor skills intervention had no effect on either child anthropometry or physical activity, consistent with previous studies.

Free access

Editor’s Notes

Craig A. Williams

Restricted access

The Associations Between Parental-Reported and Device-Based Measured Outdoor Play and Health Indicators of Physical, Cognitive, and Social–Emotional Development in Preschool-Aged Children

Cody Davenport, Nicholas Kuzik, Richard Larouche, and Valerie Carson

Purpose: Examine in preschool-aged children: (1) the associations between parental-reported and device-measured outdoor play (OP) and health indicators of physical, cognitive, and social–emotional development and (2) whether associations were independent of outdoor moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Methods: This cross-sectional study included 107 participants. Children’s OP was measured via a parental questionnaire and the lux feature of accelerometers. Children’s growth, adiposity, and motor skills were assessed as physical development indicators. Visual–spatial working memory, response inhibition, and expressive language were assessed as cognitive development indicators. Sociability, prosocial behavior, internalizing, externalizing, and self-regulation were assessed as social–emotional development indicators. Regression models were conducted that adjusted for relevant covariates. Additional models further adjusted for outdoor MVPA. Results: Parental-reported total OP, OP in summer/fall months, and OP on weekdays were negatively associated (small effect sizes) with response inhibition and working memory. After adjusting for outdoor MVPA, these associations were no longer statistically significant. OP on weekdays was negatively associated with externalizing (B = −0.04; 95% confidence interval, −0.08 to −0.00; P = .03) after adjusting for outdoor MVPA. A similar pattern was observed for device-based measured total OP (B = −0.49; 95% confidence interval, −1.05 to 0.07; P = .09). Conclusions: Future research in preschool-aged children should take into account MVPA and contextual factors when examining the association between OP and health-related indicators.

Restricted access

Associations of Serum Irisin and Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Levels With Bone Mineral Characteristics in Eumenorrheic Adolescent Athletes With Different Training Activity Patterns

Jaak Jürimäe, Liina Remmel, Anna-Liisa Tamm, Priit Purge, Katre Maasalu, and Vallo Tillmann

Purpose: To describe serum irisin and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) concentrations in healthy female adolescents with different training activity patterns and their associations with bone mineral properties and metabolic markers. Methods: A total of 62 adolescent girls aged 14–18 years were recruited: 22 rhythmic gymnasts, 20 swimmers, and 20 untrained controls. Bone mineral characteristics by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, daily energy intake by dietary recall, serum irisin, FGF-21, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were measured in all girls. Results: Whole body and lumbar spine areal bone mineral density and lumbar spine bone mineral content were higher in the rhythmic gymnasts group compared with swimmers and untrained controls groups (P < .05). Serum irisin, FGF-21, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen levels were not significantly different between the groups. In the rhythmic gymnasts group, serum FGF-21 concentration was positively correlated with lumbar spine areal bone mineral density independently of confounding factors (r = .51; P = .027). Conclusions: Serum irisin and FGF-21 levels were not different between adolescent eumenorrheic girls with different training activity patterns. FGF-21 was positively associated with lumbar spine areal bone mineral density, which predominantly consists of trabecular bone in adolescent rhythmic gymnasts.