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A Case Study Analysis of the Coach–Athlete Dyad in Different Age Grade Nonelite Rugby Union Teams

Kevin Smith, Con Burns, Cian O’Neill, Noreen Quinn, John D. Duggan, Nick Winkelman, Matthew Wilkie, and Edward K. Coughlan

The coach–athlete dyad is complex where both parties can often have contrasting perceptions of each other. The purpose of this research was to examine coaching behaviors and perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship across different age grades of rugby football union. Coaches (n = 5) and athletes (n = 78) from three separate rugby union teams (Child, Adolescent, and Adult) had their training sessions (n = 3) analyzed using the Coach Analysis and Intervention System. Athlete perceptions of their coaches’ behaviors were measured via the Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport, while coach perceptions of their relationship with their athletes were measured using the Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire. Prescriptive coaching styles were observed in all coaches as Coach Analysis and Intervention System results showed high levels of explicit behaviors: “instruction,” “direct management,” and “feedback.” All coaches utilized similar time proportions within sessions for Coach Analysis and Intervention System “Practice,” “Playing,” and “Management” states, respectively. Questionnaire results revealed positive perceptions between coaches and athletes for all teams. Despite positive bidirectional relationships, the prescriptive coaching style displayed by all coaches may not align to best coaching practice. Development of a coach’s behaviors, training content, and perceptions through coach education has the potential to enhance their athletes’ sporting experience, athletic development, and sport-specific competencies.

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Exploring Blind and Visually Impaired Students’ Views on How to Improve Physical Education

M. Ally Keene, Justin A. Haegele, Lindsay E. Ball, Lindsey A. Nowland, and Xihe Zhu

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore blind and visually impaired students’ opinions on ways to improve physical education. Method: Twenty-two blind and visually impaired youth (age 12–17 years) completed one-to-one interviews. Three themes were constructed using a reflexive thematic analysis approach. F indings: The first theme depicted participants’ views that physical education was a break during the day that did not have educational benefits. In the second theme, the participants highlighted communication and collaboration as important elements that could improve their experiences. The final theme centered on the nonexistent, insufficient, or demoralizing nature of seldom existing accommodations. Discussion: Blind and visually impaired students noted aspects of curriculum content, communication, and accommodations in physical education that may be changed to enhance their experiences, which largely centered on their physical educators’ behaviors.

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Providing Support to First-Year Graduate Teaching Assistants: What Do They Really Need?

Sheri J. Brock, Brenna Cosgrove Miller, Nikki Hollett, Jessica R. Grimes, and Michele Moore

Purpose: Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) often play a vital role in the delivery of university programs, yet GTAs may lack pedagogical experience. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of GTAs during their first semester of university teaching. Specifically, we provide a descriptive account of the GTAs’ lived experiences and how departments can best prepare GTAs. Method: Four first-year GTAs at a university in the United States participated in the study. Data collection included participant journals, focus group interviews, and individual interviews. Results: Utilizing situated learning theory as a theoretical frame, data sources generated four themes. GTAs reported positive experiences as ample support was provided, expectations were outlined, experiential learning occurred, and confidence increased through the establishment of routines. Discussion/Conclusion: Findings indicated that GTAs can acclimate to their new universities and responsibilities with guidance, resources, and support.

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Stepping Back, Stepping Up, and Stepping Forward: Exploring One Teacher’s Evolving Approach to Teaching Social and Emotional Learning in High School Physical Education

Donal Howley, Ben Dyson, and Seunghyun Baek

Purpose: Utilizing social constructivist learning theory and a conceptual framework for Social and Emotional Learning (SEL), this self-study explores how I as a teacher-researcher intentionally evolved my approach to teaching SEL in a high school Physical Education setting. Method: Data were collected over twenty 75-min lessons over 15 weeks. One critical friend interview, 20 postteaching reflections, 18 observations, and 22 journal entries were conducted. A deductive and inductive approach utilizing the Miles, Huberman, and Saldana Framework for Qualitative Data Analysis was implemented. Results: Findings demonstrate how aligning my teaching with a contemporary framework led to a more explicit and intentional focus on SEL within my already utilized repertoire of pedagogies. Discussion/Conclusion: Incorporating self-study structure as a teacher-researcher led me to understand how I evolved and felt better equipped to teach for targeted SEL competencies and skills to further compliment the teaching of core Physical Education content.

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Teacher-Coaches in an Australian Regional Independent School: An Exploratory Case Study

Matthew G. Johnson, Michalis Stylianou, and Clifford J. Mallett

Grounded in role socialization theory, we examined the perceptions of teacher-coaches at an Australian independent, regional school regarding the challenges and opportunities associated with performing this dual role. This interpretivist exploratory case study was conducted with 10 teacher-coaches of various backgrounds and experience levels. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed using a data-driven reflexive thematic analysis. Three themes were identified: (a) teacher-coaches preferred teaching over coaching, and a mismatch existed between administrators’ position and teacher-coaches’ perceptions of school practice; (b) participants identified enhanced relationships with students and career enhancement as opportunities in performing the dual roles; and (c) perceived challenges included time pressures, insufficient coaching preparation, and development opportunities. Findings highlight the complexities in successfully navigating the dual role in this context. Consideration of role preferences, challenges and opportunities, and localized coaching supports may help optimize teacher-coach, student, and school outcomes.

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Analysis of Sprint Ski Mountaineering Performance

Alessandro Fornasiero, Simone Fornoni, Alexa Callovini, Beatrice Todesco, Aldo Savoldelli, Federico Schena, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Barbara Pellegrini, and Lorenzo Bortolan

Ski mountaineering sprint competitions are short individual races involving 3 uphill sections (U), 3 transitions (T), and a final descent. To date, relatively little is known about this novel Olympic discipline, and here we examined (1) the contribution of the time spent on U, T, and final descent to overall finishing time and (2) the potential relationships with final ranking. During the different rounds of 2 International Ski Mountaineering Federation World Cup sprint competitions, male and female ski mountaineers were video recorded. Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate the impact of U, T, and final descent on the best overall finishing time. Linear-mixed model analysis was applied to explore potential interactions between section times, rounds, and final ranking. Overall, U (r = .90–.97) and T (r = .57–.89) were closely correlated with the best overall finishing time (all P < .05). U explained approximately 80% to 90% of the variation in the best finishing time for both sexes, with U + T explaining approximately 95% to 98% of this variation. In each successive round, the ski mountaineers eliminated were all slower on U than the Top 3 (all P < .05). The fastest skiers increased their performance on U in the later rounds of the competitions, while those eliminated showed a tendency toward a decrease. Our findings reveal that world-class sprint ski mountaineers conduct transitions optimally and perform effectively uphill. Training for such competitions should aim to improve short supramaximal uphill performance (∼1.5–2.5 min), ensuring that this does not decline with multiple efforts. These insights into ski mountaineering sprint performance are of considerable value in connection with training for the 2026 Winter Olympics.

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A Methodological Comparison of Protocols and Analytical Techniques to Assess the Outcome Measures of Submaximal Fitness Tests

Tzlil Shushan, Ric Lovell, Shaun J. McLaren, Steve Barrett, Martin Buchheit, Tannath J. Scott, and Dean Norris

Background: Submaximal fitness test (SMFT) outcome measures are frequently collected with a wide array of technologies and methodological approaches. Purpose: To examine the test–retest reliability of various SMFT outcome measures derived from different protocols and analytical techniques. Methods: Twenty-six semiprofessional adult soccer players performed 3 SMFT protocols, including 2 continuous (3 min, 11 and 12.8 km·h−1) and 1 intermittent (4 × 50 m, 18 km·h−1) twice, each separated by 7 days. Heart-rate (HR) indices (exercise HR, HR recovery) and scapula-mounted (PlayerLoad vector magnitude) and foot-mounted (flight time and contact time, stride length) microelectrical mechanical system–derived variables were collected using different time frames and analytical approaches adopted in the literature and practice. Absolute reliability was quantified as the group mean difference, typical error of measurement, also expressed as the coefficient of variation (where appropriate) and standardized units (ie, d). Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to quantify relative reliability. Results: The highest degrees of reliability were evident for exercise HR (typical error: 1.0%–1.6% points), the vertical component of PlayerLoad (expressed in arbitrary units; coefficient of variation: 5.5%–7.0%), and contact time (coefficient of variation: 1.5%–3.0%). These estimates were not influenced by SMFT protocol or analytical approach. All other measures displayed poorer reliability and/or were different between protocols and analytical methods. Conclusions: SMFT protocols impact the test–retest reliability of various outcome measures; however, exercise HR, vertical PlayerLoad, and contact time (derived from foot-mounted micro-electrical mechanical systems) appear to have stable measurement properties to assist the assessment of aerobic capacity and lower-limb neuromuscular status, respectively.

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Erratum. A Systematic Review of Digital Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in People With Intellectual Disabilities and/or Autism

Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly

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Erratum. Match Running Performance in Australian Football Is Related to Muscle Fiber Typology

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

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The Learning in Action Project: Perspectives of a Sport Club’s Key Actors Who Collaborated on a Coach Development Initiative

Michel Milistetd, Pierre Trudel, Caio Corrêa Cortela, Alexandre Bobato Tozetto, Diane Culver, Claudio Olívio Vilela Lima, and Vanessa Guiherme Souza

Grounded in evidence-based literature, this “practical advances” article presents some of the results of a 24-month coach development project codeveloped by a group of researchers and key actors from a multisport club in Brazil. Documented at three moments during the project, the perspectives of 11 members of the club showed that some learning took place at the individual (Me) and group (We) levels but probably fell short of the objective of significantly changing the culture of the organization. Achieving sustainable change in coach development requires the support not only of coaches but also of leaders who need to progressively make their organization a more “deliberate developmental organization.”