Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how preservice teachers (PSTs) developed their adaptive competence in lesson planning through repeated rehearsals and reflections in an online learning environment. Methods: A case study design utilizing descriptive analysis was used to analyze data collected from a series of lesson plan iterations made by nine PSTs in a physical education teacher education program. All participants attended one online introductory methods course, which consisted of a synchronous lecture and laboratory components to learn fundamental instruction and management skills in teaching physical education. Findings: PSTs made positive adaptations in five core practices in their lesson plan iterations. However, the frequency of adaptations in each core practice varied in different lesson components. The findings suggest that the complexity of content being taught and opportunities embedded in each lesson component may influence how adaptations were made in lesson plans. Conclusions: Repeated rehearsals and reflections can facilitate PSTs’ development of adaptations in lesson planning in an online environment. However, learning environments may prevent PSTs from adapting certain core practices.
Xiuye Xie, Phillip Ward, Won Seok Chey, Leslie Dillon, Scott Trainer, and Kyuil Cho
Eva Guijarro, Ann MacPhail, Natalia María Arias-Palencia, and Sixto González-Víllora
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish any difference in terms of game performance and game involvement using Sport Education (SE) or a combined use of SE and Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU). In a bid to facilitate future implementation of these models, the study provides a rich description of the pedagogies arising during both interventions. Method: The participants were 85 fourth- and fifth-grade students (aged 9–11) from four physical education classes within one elementary school. The content was a 15-lesson season of basketball taught through the principles of SE or a combined use of SE and TGfU. The game performance assessment instrument was used in a systematic observation of video recordings of students’ game behavior. Results: In terms of decision making, support, overall game performance, and game involvement, a combined use of SE and TGfU unit overtakes the scores in SE. Conclusions: There is evidence that supporting the use of combined models in the physical education context can improve students’ game performance and game involvement.
Shu Cheng, Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, and Peter Iserbyt
Purpose: Our purpose was to investigate the effect of generalization of participation in parkour from physical education classes to organized parkour recess. Methods: A total of 143 (64 girls and 79 boys) third-grade elementary school children received a 12-lesson parkour sport education season in physical education. Voluntary participation in five organized parkour recess sessions was investigated. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) data in physical education, organized parkour recess, and traditional recess were collected. Results: Girls participated significantly more in organized parkour recess compared with boys (53% vs. 35%, p = .034). Boys achieved significantly higher MVPA than girls in physical education (47% vs. 42%, p = .045), organized parkour recess (73% vs. 65%, p = .003), and traditional recess (56% vs. 36%, p < .001). Children generated on average 22% of MVPA through performing parkour-specific skills in organized parkour recess. Conclusion: Generalization of participation from physical education classes to organized recess programs is a promising strategy to increase children’s daily MVPA.
Enid K. Selkirk, Cheryl Missiuna, Sandra Moll, Peter Rosenbaum, and Wenonah Campbell
Purpose: Education policies require inclusive practices across student learning environments internationally. In Canada, provinces and territories oversee their own curriculum development. This study presents a critical discourse analysis of how inclusive education is addressed within Ontario’s 2015 Health and Physical Education Curriculum, Grades 9–12. Method: Fairclough and Chouliaraki’s approach to critical discourse analysis, which encompasses structural, linguistic, and interdiscursive analysis, was used to show how language is interwoven within ideologies of physical education to represent inclusivity. Results: Three discourses were identified: (a) the discourse of equity and inclusion, (b) the discourse of opportunity, and (c) the discourse of positive outcomes. The curriculum reflects inclusivity through overt language and intention, holding the possibility for choice and opportunities beyond traditional notions of physical education. Discussion: Concerns included whether ideals presented in the curriculum reflect the realities of “discourse in action.” Transformative discourses within physical education should emerge from the student voice.
Ángel Abós, Rafael Burgueño, Luis García-González, and Javier Sevil-Serrano
Purpose: Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined gender latent mean differences in students’ perceptions of externally and internally controlling teaching behaviors, basic psychological need frustration, controlled motivation, amotivation, and oppositional defiance in the physical education context. Moreover, it analyzed the differentiated role that internal and external controlling behaviors play on these self-determination theory-related variables among girls and boys. Method: A sample of 1,118 students (M age = 14.11 ± 1.50; 50.9% girls) participated in this research. A multigroup structural equation modeling approach was used to respond to the research questions. Results: Analyses revealed that girls reported more maladaptive outcomes in most self-determination theory-related variables than boys. Although externally and internally controlling behaviors of physical education teachers were positively related to maladaptive outcomes, the behaviors correlate differently between boys and girls. Conclusion: Findings highlight the importance of reducing externally controlling behaviors in boys and internally controlling behaviors in both genders, but particularly in girls.
Ben Dyson, Donal Howley, and Yanhua Shen
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore primary teachers’ perspectives of implementing cooperative learning (CL) to accomplish social and emotional learning (SEL) in Aotearoa New Zealand physical education. Method: A qualitative case study design gathered data from 21 teachers at four primary schools using interviews, focus groups, and field notes. Inductive and deductive analysis were used for data analysis. Findings: Four primary themes are presented: emotional processes, social and interpersonal skills, students working it out, and taking time. Findings show that using CL as a pedagogical approach allowed teachers to teach for and accomplish SEL outcomes while accomplishing broader learning outcomes in physical education. However, there appeared to be shortcomings and constraints in the implementation of CL to accomplish SEL outcomes comprehensively. Conclusion: Future research should look to examine and connect professional learning involving pedagogical approaches like CL in physical education to SEL theory and school settings to enhance learning.
Minhyun Kim, José A. Santiago, Chan Woong Park, and Emily A. Roper
Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the authors examined adapted physical education (APE) teachers’ job satisfaction. Twelve (nine female and three male) APE teachers who had 3–43 years of teaching experience participated in the study. A semistructured interview was employed. The interviews focused on the participants’ roles and responsibilities. The following questions guided this study: (a) What social agents positively impact APE teachers’ job satisfaction? (b) what APE teachers’ roles and responsibilities are related to job satisfaction? and (c) what type of working conditions are linked to APE teachers’ job satisfaction? Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. The following four themes emerged from the analysis: (a) support from administrators, physical education teachers, and colleagues; (b) relevant and meaningful professional development; (c) itinerant working conditions; and (d) seeing students’ progress and achievement. The results of this study provide several implications to enhance APE teachers’ job satisfaction.
Hilkka Kontro, Marta Kozior, Gráinne Whelehan, Miryam Amigo-Benavent, Catherine Norton, Brian P. Carson, and Phil Jakeman
Supplementing postexercise carbohydrate (CHO) intake with protein has been suggested to enhance recovery from endurance exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adding protein to the recovery drink can improve 24-hr recovery when CHO intake is suboptimal. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men performed three 2-day trials consisting of constant-load exercise to reduce glycogen on Day 1, followed by ingestion of a CHO drink (1.2 g·kg−1·2 hr−1) either without or with added whey protein concentrate (CHO + PRO) or whey protein hydrolysate (CHO + PROH) (0.3 g·kg−1·2 hr−1). Arterialized blood glucose and insulin responses were analyzed for 2 hr postingestion. Time-trial performance was measured the next day after another bout of glycogen-reducing exercise. The 30-min time-trial performance did not differ between the three trials (M ± SD, 401 ± 75, 411 ± 80, 404 ± 58 kJ in CHO, CHO + PRO, and CHO + PROH, respectively, p = .83). No significant differences were found in glucose disposal (area under the curve [AUC]) between the postexercise conditions (364 ± 107, 341 ± 76, and 330 ± 147, mmol·L−1·2 hr−1, respectively). Insulin AUC was lower in CHO (18.1 ± 7.7 nmol·L−1·2 hr−1) compared with CHO + PRO and CHO + PROH (24.6 ± 12.4 vs. 24.5 ± 10.6, p = .036 and .015). No difference in insulin AUC was found between CHO + PRO and CHO + PROH. Despite a higher acute insulin response, adding protein to a CHO-based recovery drink after a prolonged, high-intensity exercise bout did not change next-day exercise capacity when overall 24-hr macronutrient and caloric intake was controlled.
Alexandra M. Rodriguez, Alison Ede, Leilani Madrigal, Tiffanye Vargas, and Christy Greenleaf
This study aimed to assess the internalization of sociocultural attitudes and appearance comparison among U.S. athletes with physical disabilities. Female (n = 19) and male (n = 25) athletes between the ages of 18 and 73 years completed a quantitative survey along with two exploratory open-ended questions related to body appearance and influencers. Results showed significant correlations between internalization of the thin and low-body-fat ideal and appearance comparison (r = .55, p < .05) and internalization of the muscular ideal and appearance comparison (r = .76, p < .05) among women. For men, results showed a significant association between internalization of the muscular ideal and appearance comparison (r = .52, p < .05). The findings prompt further investigation of whether appearance comparison and internalization influence body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among athletes with physical disabilities.
Ghada Regaieg, Sonia Sahli, and Gilles Kermarrec
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pedagogical strategies in adapted physical education (hybrid virtual/real vs. conventional) on fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children with intellectual disability age 7–10 years. Children with intellectual disability (N = 24) were randomly assigned to either the hybrid (experimental group) or the conventional (control group) group and were evaluated across 10 weeks. The hybrid program was based on virtual and real game situations, while the conventional program was based on adapted sports. FMS were evaluated using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 at pre- and postprogram for both groups. Both programs significantly improve locomotor skills, with significantly better improvement in the experimental group. However, a significant improvement was observed only among the experimental group for object-control skills and gross motor quotient. Based on these results, a hybrid program may be considered for FMS improvement.