Background: Active gaming has emerged as a new option to foster physical activity in youth. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of active gaming in adolescents, to determine differences between active and nonactive gamers by type of day, and to examine predictors of being an active gamer. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 3095 Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 18 years who self-reported their involvement in moderate to vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and active gaming. Those engaging in active gaming for at least 10 minutes per day were considered active gamers. Student’s 2-tailed t tests, chi-square test, and binomial logistic regression were performed. Results: About 25.9% of the adolescents were active gamers. They were younger, had higher body mass index, and spent more time on moderate to vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and sedentary video games with computer/console than nonactive gamers. There were more active gamers on weekends than on weekdays. On weekdays, more males than females were active gamers. Adolescents who did not meet sleep time guidelines were more likely to be active gamers on weekdays, whereas on weekends, being a girl, overweight/obese, and having a high socioeconomic status were predictors of being an active gamer. Conclusion: Because active gaming may contribute to meeting physical activity guidelines, the present findings could enable better targeting of physical activity promotion programs.
Alexandra Valencia-Peris, Joan Úbeda-Colomer, Jorge Lizandra, Carmen Peiró-Velert and José Devís-Devís
Shaun M. Anderson and Matthew M. Martin
In 1989, former Major League Baseball (MLB) player John Young created the Reviving Baseball in Inner Cities (RBI) program as a way to increase the number of African Americans becoming involved with the game of baseball. Along with this program, MLB created the Urban Youth Academy (UYA) in 2006 as a way to not only teach the game but also provide life skills to youth and adults. However, MLB continues to struggle in developing relationships and increasing involvement of African Americans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand why African Americans are not interested or involved in MLB. Corporate social responsibility and relationship management theory were used as the frameworks for this study. Eleven RBI and UYA program managers were interviewed to determine the challenges they face in getting African Americans involved in the game. Results from this study indicated four themes regarding MLB program managers’ challenges: inconsistency in measuring success, lack of parental involvement, and lack of trust. A discussion, implications, and future directions are addressed.
Danilo R. Silva, Cláudia S. Minderico, Pedro B. Júdice, André O. Werneck, David Ohara, Edilson S. Cyrino and Luís B. Sardinha
Background: This investigation aimed to analyze the agreement between the GT3X accelerometer and the ActivPAL inclinometer for estimating and detecting changes in sedentary behavior of different contexts among adolescents. Methods: Secondary data from an intervention using standing desks in the classroom conducted within 2 sixth-grade classes (intervention [n = 22] and control [n = 27]) were used. The intervention took place over 16 weeks, with activity assessments (ActivPAL and GT3X) being performed 7 days before and in the last week of the intervention. Baseline information from both groups was considered for cross-sectional analysis (209 valid days), while data from 20 participants (intervention group) were used for longitudinal analysis. Results: The authors observed that GT3X overestimated sedentary time at school (16.8%), after school (13.5%), and during weekends (7.3%) compared with ActivPAL (P < .05). Outside the school (after school [r = −.188] and on weekends [r = −.260]), there was a trend to higher overestimation among adolescents with less sedentary behavior. Longitudinally, the GT3X was unable to detect changes resulting from an intervention in school hours (ActivPAL = −34.7 min·9 h−1 vs GT3X = +6.7 min·9 h−1; P < .05). Conclusions: The authors conclude that GT3X (cut-point of <100 counts·min−1) overestimated sedentary time of free-living activities and did not detect changes resulting from a classroom standing desk intervention in adolescents.
Matthew A. Masucci
Lauren E. Brown
Anna K. Porter, Samantha Schilsky, Kelly R. Evenson, Roberta Florido, Priya Palta, Katelyn M. Holliday and Aaron R. Folsom
Background: This study assessed the independent associations between participation in self-reported sport and exercise activities and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Data were from 13,204 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort (1987–2015). Baseline sport and exercise activities were assessed via the modified Baecke questionnaire. Incident CVD included coronary heart disease, heart failure, or stroke. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association of participation in specific sport and exercise activities at enrollment with risk of CVD. Results: During a median follow-up time of 25.2 years, 30% of the analytic sample (n = 3966) was diagnosed with incident CVD. In fully adjusted models, participation in racquet sports (hazard ratio [HR] 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.93), aerobics (HR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63–0.88), running (HR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54–0.85), and walking (HR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83–0.95) was significantly associated with a lower risk of CVD. There were no significant associations for bicycling, softball/baseball, gymnastics, swimming, basketball, calisthenics exercises, golfing with cart, golfing with walking, bowling, or weight training. Conclusions: Participation in specific sport and exercises may substantially reduce the risk for CVD.
Zhiguang Zhang, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, João R. Pereira, Anthony D. Okely, Xiaoqi Feng and Rute Santos
Background: This study examined the associations between environmental characteristics of early childhood education and care (ECEC) centers and 1-year change in toddlers’ physical activity and sedentary behavior while at the centers. Methods: Data from 292 toddlers from the GET-UP! study were analyzed. Environmental characteristics of ECEC centers were rated using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-revised edition at baseline. Children’s physical activity and sedentary behavior in the centers were assessed using activPAL devices, at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Linear mixed models were performed to examine the associations between the environmental characteristics and change in the proportion of time spent in physical activity and sedentary behavior. Results: Compared with baseline, children spent a higher proportion of time in sedentary behavior (sitting) but a lower proportion of time in standing and physical activity (stepping) while at ECEC centers, at 1-year follow-up. The environmental characteristics “interaction” (B = −1.39; P = .01) and “program structure” (B = −1.15; P = .04) were negatively associated with change in the proportion of time spent in physical activity. Conclusion: Better “interaction” and “program structure” may preclude children’s physical activity from declining over time and may be considered important features to target in future interventions in ECEC centers aiming at promoting active lifestyles.
Ashley M. Duguay, Todd M. Loughead and James M. Cook
The present study sought to address 2 limitations of previous athlete-leadership research: (a) Researchers have predominantly examined the shared nature of athlete leadership using aggregated approaches, which has limited our ability to examine differences in the degree of sharedness between teams, and (b) the limited availability of research related to dyadic predictors (i.e., qualities of the relation between 2 individuals) of athlete leadership. Therefore, social-network analysis was used to examine athlete leadership across multiple levels (i.e., individual, dyadic, and network) in 4 competitive female youth soccer teams (N = 68). Findings demonstrated differences in the degree to which athlete leadership was shared between the teams. Furthermore, multiple-regression quadratic-assignment procedures showed that skill nomination and formal leadership status were significant predictors of how often participants reported looking to their teammates for leadership.
Michael L. Naraine
The sport industry has experienced significant technological change in its environment with the recent rise of Bitcoin and its underlying foundation, blockchain. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to introduce and conceptually ground blockchain in sport and discuss the implications and value proposition of blockchain to the sport industry. After a brief overview of blockchain and the technology stack, the mechanism is conceptually rooted in the network paradigm, a framework already known to the academic sport community. This treatment argues that the decentralized, closed, and dense mesh network produced by blockchain technology is beneficial to the sport industry. Notably, the article identifies blockchain’s capacity to facilitate new sources of revenue and improve data management and suggests that sport management and communication consider the value of blockchain and the technology stack as the digital footprint in the industry intensifies and becomes increasingly complex.
Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham
ESPN The Magazine’s The Body Issue positions itself as an inclusive and sport-focused publication. With a focus on gender, the purpose of the current study was to examine the online thoughts and opinions that resulted from #BodyIssue on Instagram. In addition, the Instagram posting activity of ESPN (@espn) and espnW (@espnw) as it pertained to the promotion of the featured athletes and the Instagram accounts of the athletes featured in the 2016 Body Issue were explored. A text and network analysis surrounding #BodyIssue for both male and female Body Issue athletes was conducted using the Netlytic program. Manual Instagram tracking of @espn and @espnw, as well as the featured athletes’ accounts, was performed. In its entirety, this study was conducted between June 29 and July 13, 2016. Online thoughts and opinions, although differing by gender, were generally positive, with a large focus on physical form, not sexuality and/or nudity. Furthermore, a gender disparity was reported in regard to ESPN Inc.’s Instagram posting activity, with @espn choosing only to celebrate its male Body Issue athletes on Instagram and @espnw only posting about 2 of the 9 female athletes. There was a significant difference in the number of Instagram followers for the female athletes 1 wk prior to the online release of the issue (M = 105,767.78, SD = 141,193.71) and 1 wk postrelease (M = 109,742.56, SD = 142,890.11), t(8) = −4.29, p = .003. Further analyses of other Body Issue editions is needed to continue investigating this gender disparity and its potential impact on athletes, sport culture, and social attitudes.