The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate the impact of restrictions in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on team sport engagement from the perspectives of Victorian adolescent females. In 2022, 10 female athletes aged between 14 and 17 years, recruited via snowball sampling, took part in semistructured interviews exploring their experiences and perceptions during the pandemic. Three higher order themes emerged: (a) team sport barriers during COVID-19, (b) emotional responses of athletes during COVID-19, and (c) behavioral reactions of athletes during COVID-19. Findings indicated that athletes reported harsh restrictions, a lack of social interaction, and resources severely impacted training, ultimately resulting in poor motivation, lowered mood, and decreased sport enjoyment. Athletes also expressed concern in relation to spreading the virus, adhering to restrictions, and discovering lost skills and ability postlockdown. Guided by the self-determination theory, the perceived reduction in motivation and sport engagement for Victorian female athletes during COVID-19 was a result of the added depletion of autonomy, relatedness, and competence during the strictest lockdowns worldwide. The practical implications of this research offered new qualitative insights into how extended lockdowns and limited sport engagement impacted participation of female youth athletes who resided in the most locked-down state in the world. It also provided a strong foundation to enhance female motivation and sport engagement through addressing athletes’ self-efficacy levels and encouraging enjoyable and socially simulating sporting contexts following the COVID-19 pandemic.
The Impact of COVID-19 on Team Sport Engagement: The Perceptions of Adolescent Females in Victoria
Rachel Keane and Mandy Ruddock-Hudson
Successful Physical Activity Maintainers: Strategies and Characteristics of Young African American Women
Chloe S. Jones, Cristina S. Barroso, Lindsey A. Miossi, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, and Lyndsey M. Hornbuckle
African American (AA) women have disproportionately high physical inactivity and obesity prevalence rates in comparison to their gender and racial counterparts. AA women experience unique barriers to leisure-time physical activity (LTPA); however, methods to overcome these barriers are less developed. Therefore, this study used semistructured interviews to explore strategies of young, active AA women that support LTPA maintenance and to identify their psychosocial and behavioral characteristics. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long was also administered to provide descriptors of participants’ LTPA. Ten women (age: M = 26.1, SD = 1.7 years) who met national guidelines for aerobic or muscle-strengthening LTPA at least 6 months (aerobic LTPA: M = 2,578.0, SD = 1,228.5 metabolic equivalent-minutes [MET-min]/week; muscle-strengthening physical activity: M = 4.0, SD = 1.9 days/week) completed the study. Four categories emerged from the interviews: (a) early-life contributors to LTPA participation, (b) characteristics of current LTPA, (c) initiating LTPA participation, and (d) maintaining LTPA participation. Findings revealed participants identified weightlifting as a preferred type of LTPA, identified various planning/preparation methods to overcome LTPA challenges, and relied on social media to initiate and maintain LTPA. This study identified several strategies used by young AA women to maintain regular LTPA and program preferences. These data are important in this understudied group as similar strategies may help inactive young AA women overcome LTPA challenges and promote long-term adherence. This could help prevent health and physical activity disparities in this population.
A Cultural-Equity-Centered Guide to Inclusive Curriculum Change in Higher Education Kinesiology
Inclusiveness in higher education has received increased attention, as institutions are seeking to be more proactive in meeting the needs of a diverse student body. While university departments have noted inclusive excellence as a goal for their programs, how this is realized is often unclear or difficult to assess. Equally troubling is the scarcity of ideas on how curriculum can be enhanced for transformative change, radical possibility, antiracism, and social justice. This article attempts to rectify these issues by presenting thoughts on curriculum change and program development in higher education kinesiology using a cultural equity approach.
Passionate About Esports: Esports Players’ Motivation to Participate in and Watch Esports Events
Yong Chae Rhee and Kyungun Kim
Alderfer’s ERG (i.e., existence, relatedness, and growth) theory of motivation (1969) was adopted in this study to analyze individuals’ motivations for engaging in esports. This study investigated the relatively new field of esports viewership and participation by concentrating on the motivating factors behind esports consumption to establish whether esports viewership and participation are distinct markets that stand alone or are comparable to or complement each other for consumption. The study was conducted using qualitative methods consisting of semistructured focus-group interviews. The transcript was coded using open, axial, and selective coding to develop themes fitting within the ERG theory. The current study found similarities and unique findings in esports participation and consumption motivation factors under the ERG groups. Practical applications are proposed for employing the results of the study to further marketing and development efforts in this field.
The Effect of Detraining After a Period of Training on Menopausal Symptoms and Quality of Life
Maryam Hosseini, Maryam Koushkie Jahromi, Negar Kouroshfard, and Mohammadamin Safari
Although the effect of some types of exercise on some menopausal symptoms has been approved, the effect of exercise training and detraining, especially during long duration, on menopausal symptoms is not clear yet. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of training as well as detraining before and during the COVID-19 outbreak. Ninety postmenopausal women participated in the study voluntarily in three groups, including never-active (women who did not participate in regular exercise), formerly active (previously active women who had stopped exercise training for 1 year while participating for 1–3 years before COVID-19), and active women (women who participated in regular physical activity during and 1–3 years before COVID-19). Physical, psychological, and sexual symptoms of menopause as well as the quality of life were assessed using the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire. Before COVID-19, menopausal symptoms were lower and quality of life was higher in active and formerly active groups compared with the never-active group. During COVID-19, menopausal symptoms in all three groups increased significantly. Most of the menopausal symptoms in active women were less than in the other two groups. In summary, exercise reduced menopausal symptoms and improved quality of life. However, these positive effects were eliminated by stopping exercise for 1 year due to the COVID-19 outbreak.
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Toward the Menstrual Cycle and Menstruation Among Elite African Women Football Players, Coaches, Health Personnel, and Referees
Nonhlanhla S. Mkumbuzi, Senanile B. Dlamini, Andreas Serner, Katrine Okholm Kryger, Natalie Brown, Brianna Larsen, and Fidelis Chibhabha
Despite cross-cultural differences in knowledge and attitudes toward menstruation, most studies on menstruation in women’s sport have been conducted in high-income countries, such as in Europe, and none have been conducted in Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of African elite women football players, and their support personnel toward the menstrual cycle and menstruation. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to all participants (n = 564) at two African women football tournaments. Ultimately, 238 women football players, 44 coaches, 18 health personnel, and 17 referees completed it. From 317 questionnaires analyzed, 17%, 27%, 56%, and 0% of players, coaches, health personnel, and referees, respectively, knew at least one menstrual cycle hormone; 91%, 95%, and 100% of players, coaches, and referees, respectively, did not know at least one menstrual cycle phase. Over 70% of health personnel believed that menstruation negatively affects women’s performance in sports compared with 36% of players; 18%, 28%, and 18% of players, health personnel, and referees, respectively, believed that, for convenience, the menstrual cycle should be changed by drugs like contraceptives; and 54%, 61%, 62%, and 40% of players, coaches, health personnel, and referees, respectively, were confident providing advice about the menstrual cycle to teammates. Minimal knowledge of the menstrual cycle has implications on the development of menstrual cycle considerate training environments and educational materials in African women’s football. Furthermore, the relatively low perceived effect of the menstrual cycle on sporting performance and belief in the use of contraceptives may be attributable to differences in community-level religiocultural and social contexts which influence menstrual experiences, and shape behavioral expectations.
Volume 16 (2023): Issue 3 (Sep 2023): Special Issue—Social Media and Sport Communication: Critiquing the Scholarship
Volume 37 (2023): Issue 5 (Sep 2023)
Interactive Mechanisms to Improve Service Innovation Among Sports Clubs: A Consumer Perspective
Mohsen Behnam, Mikihiro Sato, Bradley J. Baker, and Mahdiyeh Jalili
Value co-creation for service innovation is a rapidly developing concept in the current competitive market. Prior studies emphasize the conceptual aspects of the value co-creation, with limited research focusing on the interactive effects between firms and their customers created in the process of value co-creation. We propose a framework for synthesizing the interactive concepts associated with service innovation based on the service-dominant logic. We recruited participants (N = 448) from 11 sports clubs in Iran. Results indicated that openness and consumer engagement facilitate value co-creation, which in turn leads to perceived service innovation. Furthermore, perceived brand interactivity moderated the mediating role of value co-creation in the relationship between consumer engagement and perceived service innovation. Results from this research suggest openness and consumer engagement are key antecedents of value co-creation and highlight the significance of perceived brand interactivity and value co-creation in promoting service innovation at sports clubs.
Managing Organizational and Media Stress: The Case of Elite Norwegian Skiers
Elsa Kristiansen, Barrie Houlihan, and Hans Anton Stubberud
This case study focuses on how Norwegian ski jumpers performed in the Beijing 2022 Winter Olympics and the following FIS (International Ski and Snowboard Federation) ski flying World Championships 2022 in Vikersund, Norway, despite organizational conflict at the management level and intense and sustained media coverage the entire season. Five athletes (one third of the elite squad) were interviewed about how they coped with the stressors. The results revealed two main responses: One group avoided, as far as possible, hearing or reading about the conflicts and tried to stay in their “bubble” and focus on preparing for competition. The other group chose to follow the conflicts and was more willing to interact with the media, therefore experienced a higher degree of perceived stress, and consequently needed to employ a wider range of coping strategies. The findings highlight the importance of a consistent and effective management strategy in helping athletes to focus on training and competition preparation and insulate them from stressors generated by organizational turbulence and conflicts.