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Michael J. Marsala, Shannon Belfry, Joseph B. Orange, and Anita D. Christie

Sex-related differences in changes in functional fitness over time were longitudinally assessed in older adults participating in a group-based multimodal exercise program. From a database, functional fitness scores were obtained for 89 older adults (71.6 ± 6.5 years old) who had completed two assessments, 5–8 years apart. Lower body strength, upper body strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility, and change of direction performances were compared over time and with normative values. Females (p = .02), but not males, had an improvement in upper body strength over time. Females were also more flexible than males at both assessments (p ≤ .02). Of those who had five consecutive assessments, females were more flexible than males (p ≤ .05) and had a faster change of direction ability (p < .001). When compared with normative values, our results indicate that typical time-related functional fitness loss can be attenuated with group exercise. Our results further support the need to tailor exercise prescription according to the individual.

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Sabrine Nayara Costa, Luis Henrique Boiko Ferreira, and Paulo C. B. Bento

Objective: Individual unsupervised home-based exercise programs can enhance muscle strength, physical function, gait, and balance in older adults. However, the effectiveness of such programs may be limited by the lack of supervision. This study aims to verify the effectiveness of individual unsupervised home-based programs, compare the effects of individual unsupervised home-based to supervised programs, and verify the influence of supervision over individual unsupervised home-based programs on the physical function of older adults. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in four electronic databases, and the trials involved randomized controlled comparing the home-based programs to supervised, control groups, or home-based + supervised evaluating the muscle strength, physical function, gait, and balance in older adults. Results: Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis revealed no differences between home-based program versus supervised program in gait, mobility, and balance, revealing a trend of significance to supervised program on strength (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.27, p = .05). The analysis revealed effects in mobility (SMD = 0.40, p = .003), balance (SMD = 0.58, p = .0002), and muscle strength (SMD = 0.36, p = .02) favoring home-based program versus control group. Significant effects between home-based program versus home-based + supervised program were observed in balance (SMD = 0.74, p = .002) and muscle strength (SMD = 0.58, p = .01) in favor of home-based + supervised program. Conclusion: Home-based programs effectively improve older adults’ physical function compared with control groups. However, supervised programs were more effective for muscle strength.

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Janet Lok Chun Lee, Vivian Wei Qun Lou, and Rick Yiu Cho Kwan

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the use of videoconferencing-delivered online exercise classes among community-dwelling older adults. This phenomenon is new, and no research has investigated older adults’ relevant experiences and postpandemic perspectives. This study is situated in a naturalistic paradigm and adopted a descriptive qualitative methodology to understand the phenomenon. In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 older adults (aged 55–89 years) who have participated in videoconferencing-delivered online exercise since the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing thematic analysis, eight key themes were identified. Older adults experienced convenience, exercise regularity, technological transformation, and motivation when using this new form of exercise delivery. At the same time, they also experienced certain technological barriers and compromised quality of instructor supervision. Looking forward, older adults welcomed the increased opportunity for supervised exercise due to increased virtual capacity. They also envisaged that mobility-restricted groups such as frail older adults and caregivers would benefit from this form of exercise delivery.

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Peter A. Hastie

This paper begins with the premise that the purpose of physical education is to help young people grow personal and durable playgrounds. That is, its goal is to allow students in schools to develop the skills and understandings about various movement topics to the extent that they can engage with these in deep and meaningful ways long after their lessons in the gymnasium have concluded. The paper presents a schematic that links how a physical education curriculum should be framed with the necessary ingredients of high-quality teaching to allow for successful forays into various movement cultures. The next section includes a justification of the schema using the very best of research in sport pedagogy that has been translated into school physical education settings. Two specific grand adventures that are the vehicles for creating enduring playgrounds are presented, these being sport education and student-designed games.

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Ayane Muro, Nozomi Takatoku, Chiaki Ohtaka, Motoko Fujiwara, and Hiroki Nakata

We investigated performance levels on conducting continuous two-footed jumping of preschool children (4 years old) to high school students (16 years old) to clarify the developmental progression and sex differences in motor coordination and agility. In total, 450 children (boys: 227; girls: 223) participated in this study. We set 10 obstacles to jump over for continuous two-footed jumping and analyzed the movement time (MT), aerial time (AT), and contact time (CT), and variabilities in AT and CT in 7 year-based categories, using a high-speed camera. We also used multiple regression analysis to identify the predictors of MT. MT and CT shortened until 8 years, whereas AT continued to shorten after 8 years, suggesting that the jumping strategy differs between those younger/older than 8 years. MT, AT, and CT were significantly shorter among boys than girls from preschool children to high school students. In addition, when using multiple regression analysis, the main predictor of MT changed gradually from SD of CT to AT with increasing age. Our findings suggest that the motor control mechanisms related to continuous two-footed jumping differ depending on the age and sex and provide findings to advance understanding of the age-related motor coordination and agility in children.

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Jasmin C. Hutchinson, Leighton Jones, Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Boris Cheval, Ralf Brand, Gabrielle M. Salvatore, Samantha Adler, and Yan Luo

This study compared the effects of an increasing-intensity (UP) and a decreasing-intensity (DOWN) resistance training protocol on affective responses across six training sessions. Novice participants (M age 43.5 ± 13.7 years) were randomly assigned to UP (n = 18) or DOWN (n = 17) resistance training groups. Linear mixed-effects models showed that the evolution of affective valence within each training session was significantly moderated by the group (b = −0.45, p ≤ .001), with participants in the UP group reporting a decline in pleasure during each session (b = −0.82) and the DOWN group reporting an improvement (b = 0.97; ps < .001). Remembered pleasure was significantly higher in the DOWN group compared to the UP group (b = 0.57, p = .004). These findings indicate that a pattern of decreasing intensity throughout a resistance exercise session can elicit more positive affective responses and retrospective affective evaluations of resistance training.

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Michael Douglas da Silva Martins, Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Eleonora Esposito, Priscila Kalil Morelhão, Pedro Henrique Narciso, Márcia Rodrigues Franco, and Rafael Zambelli Pinto

To investigate the association between physical activity (PA) domains and chronic low back pain (LBP) in older adults. A cross-sectional study where sociodemographic, behavioral, and health variables; PA; and presence of chronic LBP were collected. Higher scores of PA defined the “more active” participants. Binary logistic regression was used to test the association between PA domains and chronic LBP. A total of 516 participants were included. The mean age was 71.8 (95% confidence interval, CI, [71.1, 72.5]) years, and 29%, 27%, 25%, and 31% were identified as “more active” in the household, sports, leisure-time, and total PA domains, respectively. “More active” participants in sports (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.40, 0.97]), leisure-time (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% CI [0.35, 0.85]) and total (odds ratio = 0.60, 95% CI [0.39, 0.92]) PA domains were less likely to report chronic LBP. High levels of sports, leisure-time, and total PA were inversely associated with chronic LBP.

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Lucas Lima Galvão, Rizia Rocha Silva, Sheilla Tribess, Joilson Meneguci, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Douglas de Assis Teles Santos, and Jair Sindra Virtuoso Júnior

This study investigated the direct and indirect associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with survival time in older adults. Prospective population-based cohort study used exploratory survey-type methods and physical performance tests in 319 adults aged ≥60 years. Trajectory diagrams were used to represent the initial hypothetical and final models with the relationships of independent, mediating, and dependent variables. Physical activity was indirectly associated with survival time and was mediated by instrumental activities of daily living and functional performance. In contrast, instrumental activities of daily living, functional performance, the number of hospitalizations, and medications mediated the association between duration of sedentary behavior and survival time. The explanatory power of the final model was 19%. Future efforts should focus on increasing the participation and adherence of older adults to exercise programs to improve their physical functions and general health, which may increase their health period and, consequently, their survival time.

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Masood Mahfooz, Young-Eun Noh, and Eng Wah Teo

Evaluating athletes’ knowledge of and attitudes toward sports-related concussions is important. However, there is limited research involving South Asian athletes, partly due to the lack of a valid and reliable tool. This study, therefore, aimed to translate and validate the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version, an established tool used to measure knowledge and attitude toward concussion, into Urdu. Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version was translated into Urdu using the standard guidelines and then completed by 369 athletes participating in contact sports at different universities in Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the Concussion Attitude Index items to examine the underlying factorial structure. Construct validity of Concussion Attitude Index factors was also investigated using convergent and discriminant validity. The results showed that the Urdu version of the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version has good psychometric properties and is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating Urdu-speaking athletes’ knowledge of and attitudes toward concussions.

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Nadja Schott

Research has shown that nonright-handedness in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is associated with poorer motor and cognitive performance. This study investigated the influence of degree and direction of handedness on performance using the Home Handedness Questionnaire, the Hit-the-Dot test, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and the digital Trail-Making Test. Eighteen children with DCD and 21 typically developing children aged 8–12 years participated in this study. The distribution of degree and direction of handedness in the group of DCD children were not different from that found in the typically developing group. In the Hit-the-Dot test, typically developing children significantly performed better than children with DCD, no matter which hand was dominant or to which degree. A significant inconsistent-handed advantage in the subdomain balance was found for children with DCD. Inconsistent handedness also seems to be an advantage for children with DCD on the digital Trail-Making Test performance. The relationship between the subcategories of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the digital Trail-Making Test part B is stronger for consistent than for inconsistent handedness. Our findings suggest that children with DCD and inconsistent handedness might benefit from greater crosstalk across hemispheres. In addition, these predispositions can be reinforced or discouraged throughout development and via occupational therapy.