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Assessing the Role of Sports Participation on Depression, Suicide Ideation, and Suicide Behaviors Among Adolescents Before and During COVID-19

Philip Veliz and Massy Mutumba

Purpose: To assess the association between sports participation, depression, suicide ideation, and suicide behaviors in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents before COVID-19 and during COVID-19. Methods: Data from the 2019 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 13,526) and the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (n = 7677) were used to analyze the association between past-year depression/suicide ideation/suicide behaviors and past-year sports participation. Results: The analysis found that 57.4% of adolescents indicated participating in at least 1 sport in 2019; this dropped to 47.7% in 2021. Furthermore, 36.7% of adolescents indicated feeling sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 weeks or more in a row in 2019; this increased to 44.2% in 2021. The percentage of adolescents who indicated considering suicide, making a suicide plan, attempting suicide, and attempted suicide that lead to an injury was similar during 2019 and 2021. Multivariable analysis found that participation in 2 or more sports in 2019 was associated with lower odds of each of the outcomes for depression, suicide ideation, and suicide behaviors, whereas in 2021, participation in 2 or more sports was only associated with lower odds of indicating being sad or hopeless (an indicator for depression) for a 2-week period (adjusted odds ratios = 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–0.85). Conclusions: Participation in 2 or more sports lowered the risk of feeling sad or hopeless, suicide ideation, and suicide behaviors in 2019, but this effect was absent in 2021. Given the presence of multiple stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic, sports participation alone may not offer sufficient protective effects against suicide behaviors as it did pre pandemic.

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Future Directions for Movement Behavior Research in the Early Years

Valerie Carson, Catherine E. Draper, Anthony Okely, John J. Reilly, and Mark S. Tremblay

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Data Coaching: A Strategy to Address Youth Physical Behavior, Motor Competence, and Out-of-School Time Leader Evidence-Based Practices

Peter Stoepker and David A. Dzewaltowski

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Examination of Physical Activity, Organized Sport, and Sitting Time Among Women and Mothers From Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

Susan Paudel, Gita D. Mishra, Jenny Veitch, Gregore I. Mielke, and Kylie D. Hesketh

Background: Little evidence is available from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities on the association between motherhood and physical activity (PA). This study aimed to examine independent and joint associations of cultural background and motherhood with meeting PA guidelines, participation in organized sports, and high sitting time (>8 h/d). Methods: We used self-reported cross-sectional data from survey 8 of the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. PA was measured using the Active Australia Survey while organized sport and sitting time were measured using single items. CALD was defined as being born in a non-English speaking country or primarily speaking a non-English language at home. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to examine independent and joint associations. Results: Data from 5967 women (mean age 42.4 [SD 1.5] y, 6.9% CALD, 81.2% mothers) were analyzed. Women of CALD background had lower odds of meeting PA guidelines (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.80; 0.64–0.98) and participation in organized sports (0.68; 0.54–0.86), but no statistically significant association with sitting time (0.90; 0.72–1.14). Mothers had lower odds of meeting PA guidelines (0.75; 0.64–0.87) and high sitting time (0.42; 0.36–0.49). Compared with non-CALD women without children, mothers (irrespective of cultural background) were less likely to meet PA guidelines and have high sitting time. The association of “cultural background and motherhood” with organized sports participation was only significant for CALD mothers. Conclusions: Increased efforts and investments are needed to ensure that sports and other PA promotion interventions are culturally sensitive and engaging for CALD women and those with children.

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A Systematic Review of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Patterns in an Osteoarthritic Population

Zoe E. Dawson, Alexander J. Beaumont, and Sophie E. Carter

Objective: To explore physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) in individuals with lower limb (LL) Osteoarthritis (OA) and the influence of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on these behaviors. Design: Systematic review search: PubMed, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and CINAHL databases were searched from inception until July 2023. Study criteria: Studies that reported quantifiable device-based or self-reported data for PA and SB variables in adults clinically diagnosed with LL OA were included. Data synthesis: A synthesis of PA and SB levels for those diagnosed with LL OA and the influence age, sex, and BMI have on these behaviors. Results: From the 1930 studies identified through the electronic search process, 48 met the inclusion criteria. PA guidelines were met by 33% of the sample population that measured moderate and moderate to vigorous PA. No studies reported 75 minutes per week or more of vigorous PA. Additionally, 58% of the population reporting SB were sedentary for 8 hours per day or more. Also, increasing age, BMI, and the female sex were identified as negative influences on PA levels. There were numerous methodological inconsistencies in how data were collected and reported, such as various activity monitor cut points for PA and SB bout duration. Conclusion: Adults with LL OA may be at an increased risk of noncommunicable diseases due to low PA and high SB levels. It is important to consider age, sex, and BMI when investigating behavior patterns in those with LL OA.

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Adherence to the Singapore Integrated 24-Hour Activity Guidelines by Infants and Toddlers and Its Association With Well-Being

Guan Yuan Loh, Terence Buan Kiong Chua, Kok Hian Tan, Benny Kai Guo Loo, Phaik Ling Quah, and Michael Yong Hwa Chia

Background: This study estimated the prevalence of Singapore infants and toddlers who met the new Singapore Integrated 24-Hour Activity Guidelines for Early Childhood and examined its association with well-being. Methods: A total of 267 parents of children aged between 0 and 2 years completed an online questionnaire that consists of the Singaporean Children Lifestyle Questionnaire and either the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory Infant Scale or the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Well-being of infants was measured through parent responses to PedsQL and that of toddlers was measured through Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Data were benchmarked against age-specific guidelines for physical activity, screen time, and sleep in the Singapore Integrated 24-Hour Activity Guidelines for Early Childhood. Results: A higher percentage of infants (37.3%) than toddlers (20.6%) had met 3 guidelines. In contrast, a lower percentage of infants than toddlers met at least one or did not meet any guidelines (3.8% and 0% for infants vs 22.4% and 1.8% for toddlers, respectively). Infants who met more guidelines had significantly higher parent-reported PedsQL total scale score than infants who met fewer guidelines (P < .05). However, the present study found that the number of guidelines met was not associated to infants’ PedsQL scale score and toddlers’ total difficulty score (P > .05). Conclusion: Adherence to this set of local guidelines should be widely publicized, so parents will have greater awareness and knowledge on cultivating good physical activity, screen time, and sleep habits for their child from a young age.

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The “Matildas Effect”: Will the FIFA Women’s World Cup Generate a Legacy in Australia?

Ding Ding, Katherine Owen, Adrian E. Bauman, Gregore I. Mielke, and Klaus Gebel

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Reliability and Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Adapted to Include Adults With Physical Disability

Julianne G. Clina, R. Drew Sayer, James E. Friedman, Tsz Kiu Chui, Tapan Mehta, James H. Rimmer, and James O. Hill

Background: People with physical disabilities (PWD) participate in less physical activity than people without physical disabilities (PWoD), which increases the risk for several negative health consequences. Comparing physical activity between PWD and PWoD remains a challenge since no reliable and valid survey exists to measure physical activity in both populations. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was adapted to be inclusive of PWD using a recently developed survey adaption framework; however, the adapted IPAQ has not been assessed for reliability and validity. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the adapted IPAQ. Methods: To assess test–retest reliability, the adapted IPAQ was completed twice within a 72-hour period by 172 individuals (PWD: n = 102, PWoD: n = 70) and compared using intraclass correlation coefficients. Using Spearman rho, convergent validity and construct validity were assessed in 62 individuals by comparing the adapted IPAQ against the original instrument and activity monitor measured step count, respectively. Results: The adapted IPAQ demonstrated moderate test–retest reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients of total scores for the total sample of .690 (95% confidence interval [CI] .581–.770) and among subgroup analysis (PWD, .640, 95% CI, .457–.761; PWoD, .758, 95% CI, .610–.850). Correlation coefficients were also good for the assessment of convergent validity of total score (.727; 95% CI, .579–.829; P < .001). Construct validity assessment yielded moderate coefficient (.406; 95% CI, .166–.596; P = .001). Conclusions: The adapted IPAQ demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity and is appropriate for use in PWD and PWoD.

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Volume 20 (2023): Issue 12 (Dec 2023)

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Effect of a Customized Physical Activity Promotion Program on Visceral Fat and Glycemic Parameters in Individuals With Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Radhika A. Jadhav, G. Arun Maiya, Shashikiran Umakanth, and K.N. Shivashankara

Background: Physical activity of any amount results in substantial health benefits. However, public awareness of physical activity benefits in chronic diseases is inadequate in India. Prediabetes is a significant health issue on a global scale. Visceral fat (VF) is considered as an early predictor of prediabetes. Ethnicity and race have a substantial impact on VF. Hence, this study intended to evaluate the effect of a customized physical activity promotion program on VF and glycemic parameters in individuals with prediabetes. Methods: In the current, parallel group randomized controlled trial, a total of 158 participants were recruited: 79 in intervention and 79 in control group. The study included the prediabetes individuals based on American Diabetes Association criteria. Participants from the intervention group received the customized physical activity promotion program for 24 weeks. The primary outcome measures of the study were VF level and glycemic parameters that included fasting blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin. Two-way mixed analysis of variance was used to study the mean difference of an outcome between 2 groups over time. Results: The study found a statistically significant interaction between the intervention and times on VF level, F 1,136 = 23.564, fasting blood sugar levels, F 1,136 = 8.762, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, F 1,136 = 64.582 at the end of 24 weeks (P < .05). Conclusions: This study concluded that a customized physical activity promotion program was effective in reducing VF in individuals with prediabetes as compared with controls. It improved glycemic control by reducing fasting blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin levels.