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The Influence of Exercise, Lifestyle Behavior Components, and Physical Fitness on Maternal Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention, and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain

Pedro Acosta-Manzano, Francisco M. Acosta, Irene Coll-Risco, Lidia Romero-Gallardo, Marta Flor-Alemany, Luis J. Martínez-González, María Jesús Alvarez-Cubero, Víctor Segura-Jiménez, and Virginia A. Aparicio

This study examines (a) the influence of exercise, lifestyle behavior components (sedentary time, physical activity, and sleep and dietary patterns), and physical fitness on maternal weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and excessive gestational weight gain and (b) whether exercise protects against the adverse effects of impaired metabolism and nonoptimal body composition related to excessive gestational weight gain. Subjects were assigned to either a supervised concurrent (aerobic + resistance) exercise program followed 3 days/week (n = 47) or a control group (n = 54). Sedentary time, physical activity, sleep and dietary patterns (assessed by accelerometry and questionnaires), muscle strength (handgrip test), and cardiorespiratory fitness (Bruce test) were determined at gestational Weeks 16 and 33 (early-middle and late pregnancy, respectively), and at 6 weeks postpartum. Weight gain and weight retention were calculated using recorded weights at prepregnancy, early-middle, and late pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum. Birth complications, maternal postpartum body composition, cardiometabolic, and inflammatory markers in maternal and umbilical cord arterial and venous blood, and in colostrum, and mature milk were also recorded. The exercise intervention reduced late weight gain (B = −2.7, SE = 0.83, p = .003) and weight retention (B = −2.85, SE = 1.3, p = .03), independent of any lifestyle behavior component or physical fitness, but did not prevent excessive weight gain. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and sleep duration were associated with a smaller mean weight gain and lower excessive weight gain values (p < .05). Among the participants who experienced excessive weight gain, those who were exercisers had a lower body mass index and systemic tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration, lower umbilical cord venous tumor necrosis factor-alpha and arterial interferon gamma levels, higher cord arterial interleukin-10 levels, and improved placental function compared with controls (p < .05). In summary, exercise may help optimize gestational weight gain and weight retention, and may attenuate the impaired phenotype related to excessive weight gain. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and sleep duration might help to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

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Evening Caffeine Did Not Improve 100-m Swimming Time Trials Performed 60 Min Post-Ingestion or the Next Morning After Sleep

Josh W. Newbury, Bryan Saunders, and Lewis A. Gough

The potential ergogenic benefits of caffeine (CAF) are well known within the athletic community, often leading to its use in adolescent swimming cohorts to enhance their performance. However, it has previously been reported that CAF has sleep-disturbing effects, which could be detrimental to performance over consecutive days in multiday competitions. Moreover, the effects that evening CAF ingestion has on sleep, side effects, and next-day performances are yet to be researched in trained adolescents. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, eight national-level swimmers (age: 18 ± 1 years, height: 1.76 ± 0.06 cm, body mass [BM]: 69.4 ± 6.4 kg) ingested a capsule containing 3 mg/kg BM CAF or a placebo 60 min before an evening 100-m swimming time trial. The next morning, sleep was analyzed (Core Consensus Sleep Diary) and 100-m time trials were repeated. Side effects were analyzed via visual analog scales throughout the study. No differences were found for swimming performance (p = .911) in the evening (CAF: 59.5 ± 7.8 s, placebo: 59.9 ± 7.9 s, g = 0.06) or morning (CAF: 59.7 ± 7.7 s, placebo: 60.2 ± 7.9 s, g = 0.07). In addition, no group differences were found for any subjective side effects (e.g., anxiety: p = .468, tachycardia: p = .859, alertness: p = .959) or sleep parameters (e.g., sleep latency: p = .395, total sleep time: p = .574). These results question the use of a standardized 3 mg/kg BM CAF ingestion strategy for 100-m swimming time trials in trained adolescents, although objective measures may be needed to confirm that CAF does not affect sleep within this cohort.

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Volume 32 (2022): Issue 4 (Jul 2022)

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Comment on: “Association of Vitamin D Supplementation in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Muscle Strength in Adult Twins: A Randomized Controlled Trial”

Nicholas B. Tiller

Open access

Retraction: Medeiros et al. (2022)

James A. Betts

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Fat-Free Mass Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis as an Alternative to Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Calculating Energy Availability in Female Adolescent Athletes

Ivy Evangelista Ramos, Gabriela Morgado Coelho, Haydée Serrão Lanzillotti, Elisabetta Marini, and Josely Correa Koury

Energy availability (EA) is calculated by subtracting exercise energy expenditure from energy intake, adjusted for fat-free mass (FFM) obtained using accurate methods, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Unlike DXA, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is low in cost, simple and easy to carry out. This study aimed to test the concordance between the calculation of EA using FFM values from four BIA predictive equations and FFM obtained using DXA in female adolescent athletes (n = 94), recruited via social media. Paired Student’s t test, Wilcoxon test, Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, root mean square error, limits of agreement, and mean absolute percentage error were used to evaluate agreement between the FFM values obtained by the four SF-BIA predictive equations and DXA. Regression linear analysis was used to determine the relation between FFM values obtained using DXA and the BIA predictive equations. Standardized residuals of the FFM and EA were calculated considering DXA values as reference. The most appropriate model for the FFM (limits of agreement = 4.0/−2.6 kg, root mean square error = 1.9 kg, mean absolute percentage error = 4.34%, Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient = .926) and EA (limits of agreement = 2.51/4.4 kcal·kg FFM−1·day−1, root mean square error = 1.8 kcal·kg FFM−1·day−1, mean absolute percentage error 4.24%, Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient = .992) was the equation with sexual maturity as a variable, while the equation with the greatest age variability was the one with the lowest agreement. FFM-BIA predictive equations can be used to calculate EA of female adolescent athletes. However, the equation should be chosen considering sex, age, and maturation status. In the case of athletes, researchers should use equations developed for this group.

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Restrictive Eating and Prior Low-Energy Fractures Are Associated With History of Multiple Bone Stress Injuries

Sarah Gehman, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Signe Caksa, Sara E. Rudolph, Julie M. Hughes, Margaret Garrahan, Adam S. Tenforde, Mary L. Bouxsein, and Kristin L. Popp

Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are common among athletes and have high rates of recurrence. However, risk factors for multiple or recurrent BSIs remain understudied. Thus, we aimed to explore whether energy availability, menstrual function, measures of bone health, and a modified Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) tool are associated with a history of multiple BSIs. We enrolled 51 female runners (ages 18–36 years) with history of ≤1 BSI (controls; n = 31) or ≥3 BSIs (multiBSI; n = 20) in this cross-sectional study. We measured lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck areal bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone material strength index using impact microindentation, and volumetric bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and estimated strength by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Participants completed questionnaires regarding medical history, low-energy fracture history, and disordered eating attitudes. Compared with controls, multiBSI had greater incidence of prior low-energy fractures (55% vs. 16%, p = .005) and higher modified Triad CRA scores (2.90 ± 2.05 vs. 1.84 ± 1.59, p = .04). Those with multiBSI had higher Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (0.92 ± 1.03 vs. 0.46 ± 0.49, p = .04) scores and a greater percentage difference between lowest and highest body mass at their current height (15.5% ± 6.5% vs. 11.5% ± 4.9% p = .02). These preliminary findings indicate that women with a history of multiple BSIs suffered more prior low-energy fractures and have greater historical and current estimates of energy deficit compared with controls. Our results provide strong rationale for future studies to examine whether subclinical indicators of energy deficit contribute to risk for multiple BSIs in female runners.

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Volume 32 (2022): Issue 3 (May 2022)

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Ketone Monoester Ingestion Alters Metabolism and Simulated Rugby Performance in Professional Players

Oliver J. Peacock, Javier T. Gonzalez, Simon P. Roberts, Alan Smith, Scott Drawer, and Keith A. Stokes

Ketone ingestion can alter metabolism but effects on exercise performance are unclear, particularly with regard to the impact on intermittent-intensity exercise and team-sport performance. Nine professional male rugby union players each completed two trials in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Participants ingested either 90 ± 9 g carbohydrate (CHO; 9% solution) or an energy matched solution containing 20 ± 2 g CHO (3% solution) and 590 mg/kg body mass β-hydroxybutyrate monoester (CHO + BHB-ME) before and during a simulated rugby union-specific match-play protocol, including repeated high-intensity, sprint and power-based performance tests. Mean time to complete the sustained high-intensity performance tests was reduced by 0.33 ± 0.41 s (2.1%) with CHO + BHB-ME (15.53 ± 0.52 s) compared with CHO (15.86 ± 0.80 s) placebo (p = .04). Mean time to complete the sprint and power-based performance tests were not different between trials. CHO + BHB-ME resulted in blood BHB concentrations that remained >2 mmol/L during exercise (p < .001). Serum lactate and glycerol concentrations were lower after CHO + BHB-ME than CHO (p < .05). Coingestion of a BHB-ME with CHO can alter fuel metabolism (attenuate circulating lactate and glycerol concentrations) and may improve high-intensity running performance during a simulated rugby match-play protocol, without improving shorter duration sprint and power-based efforts.

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Sweating Rate and Sweat Chloride Concentration of Elite Male Basketball Players Measured With a Wearable Microfluidic Device Versus the Standard Absorbent Patch Method

Lindsay B. Baker, Michelle A. King, David M. Keyes, Shyretha D. Brown, Megan D. Engel, Melissa S. Seib, Alexander J. Aranyosi, and Roozbeh Ghaffari

The purpose of this study was to compare a wearable microfluidic device and standard absorbent patch in measuring local sweating rate (LSR) and sweat chloride concentration ([Cl]) in elite basketball players. Participants were 53 male basketball players (25 ± 3 years, 92.2 ± 10.4 kg) in the National Basketball Association’s development league. Players were tested during a moderate-intensity, coach-led practice (98 ± 30 min, 21.0 ± 1.2 °C). From the right ventral forearm, sweat was collected using an absorbent patch (3M Tegaderm + Pad). Subsequently, LSR and local sweat [Cl] were determined via gravimetry and ion chromatography. From the left ventral forearm, LSR and local sweat [Cl] were measured using a wearable microfluidic device and associated smartphone application-based algorithms. Whole-body sweating rate (WBSR) was determined from pre- to postexercise change in body mass corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum), urine loss, and estimated respiratory water and metabolic mass loss. The WBSR values predicted by the algorithms in the smartphone application were also recorded. There were no differences between the absorbent patch and microfluidic patch for LSR (1.25 ± 0.91 mg·cm−2·min−1 vs. 1.14 ±0.78 mg·cm−2·min−1, p = .34) or local sweat [Cl] (30.6 ± 17.3 mmol/L vs. 29.6 ± 19.4 mmol/L, p = .55). There was no difference between measured and predicted WBSR (0.97 ± 0.41 L/hr vs. 0.89 ± 0.35 L/hr, p = .22; 95% limits of agreement = 0.61 L/hr). The wearable microfluidic device provides similar LSR, local sweat [Cl], and WBSR results compared with standard field-based methods in elite male basketball players during moderate-intensity practices.