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Effect of Prior Exercise on Postprandial Lipemia: An Updated Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

Regis C. Pearson, Betsy Cogan, Sara A. Garcia, and Nathan T. Jenkins

The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the results from current literature examining the effects of prior exercise on the postprandial triglyceride (TG) response to evaluate current literature and provide future direction. A quantitative review was performed using meta-analytic methods to quantify individual effect sizes. A moderator analysis was performed to investigate potential variables that could influence the effect of prior exercise on postprandial TG response. Two hundred and seventy-nine effects were retrieved from 165 studies for the total TG response and 142 effects from 87 studies for the incremental area under the curve TG response. There was a moderate effect of exercise on the total TG response (Cohen’s d = −0.47; p < .0001). Moderator analysis revealed exercise energy expenditure significantly moderated the effect of prior exercise on the total TG response (p < .0001). Exercise modality (e.g., cardiovascular, resistance, combination of both cardiovascular and resistance, or standing), cardiovascular exercise type (e.g., continuous, interval, concurrent, or combined), and timing of exercise prior to meal administration significantly affected the total TG response (p < .001). Additionally, exercise had a moderate effect on the incremental area under the curve TG response (Cohen’s d = −0.40; p < .0001). The current analysis reveals a more homogeneous data set than previously reported. The attenuation of postprandial TG appears largely dependent on exercise energy expenditure (∼2 MJ) and the timing of exercise. The effect of prior exercise on the postprandial TG response appears to be transient; therefore, exercise should be frequent to elicit an adaptation.

Open access

Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation, but not Creatyl-L-Leucine, Increased Muscle Creatine Content in Healthy Young Adults: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

Andrew T. Askow, Kevin J.M. Paulussen, Colleen F. McKenna, Amadeo F. Salvador, Susannah E. Scaroni, Jade S. Hamann, Alexander V. Ulanov, Zhong Li, Scott A. Paluska, Kayleigh M. Beaudry, Michael De Lisio, and Nicholas A. Burd

Creatine (Cr) supplementation is a well-established strategy to enhance gains in strength, lean body mass, and power from a period of resistance training. However, the effectiveness of creatyl-L-leucine (CLL), a purported Cr amide, is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of CLL on muscle Cr content. Twenty-nine healthy men (n = 17) and women (n = 12) consumed 5 g/day of either Cr monohydrate (n = 8; 28.5 ± 7.3 years, 172.1 ± 11.0 cm, 76.6 ± 10.7 kg), CLL (n = 11; 29.2 ± 9.3 years, 170.3 ± 10.5 cm, 71.9 ± 14.5 kg), or placebo (n = 10; 30.3 ± 6.9 years, 167.8 ± 9.9 cm, 69.9 ± 11.1 kg) for 14 days in a randomized, double-blind design. Participants completed three bouts of supervised resistance exercise per week. Muscle biopsies were collected before and after the intervention for quantification of muscle Cr. Cr monohydrate supplementation which significantly increased muscle Cr content with 14 days of supplementation. No changes in muscle Cr were observed for the placebo or CLL groups. Cr monohydrate supplementation is an effective strategy to augment muscle Cr content while CLL is not.

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No Effect of Calanus Oil on Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Healthy Participants: A Randomized Controlled Study

Lucas Tauschek, Ragnhild E.N. Røsbjørgen, Håvard Dalen, Terje Larsen, and Trine Karlsen

We aimed to investigate the long-term effect of daily Calanus oil supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in healthy 30- to 50-year-old participants. The study was motivated by preclinical studies reporting increased VO2max and metabolic health with omega-3 rich Calanus oil. In a double-blinded study, 71 participants were randomized to receive 2 g/day of Calanus or placebo supplementation for a total of 6 months. The participants underwent exercise testing and clinical investigations at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Main study endpoint was change in VO2max from baseline to 6 months. Fifty-eight participants completed the 6-month test and were included in the final data analysis (age: Calanus, 39.7 [38.0, 41.4] and placebo, 38.8 [36.8, 40.9] years; body mass index: Calanus, 24.8 [24.0, 25.6] and placebo, 24.8 [23.7, 25.8] kg/m2; and VO2max: Calanus, 50.4 [47.1, 53.8] and placebo, 50.2 [47.2, 53.1] ml·kg−1·min−1). There were no between-group differences at baseline, nor were there any between-group differences in absolute (Calanus, 3.74 [3.44, 4.04] and placebo, 3.79 [3.44, 4.14] L/min) or relative VO2max (Calanus, 49.7 [46.2, 53.2] and placebo, 49.5 [46.0, 53.1] ml·kg−1·min−1) at 6 months (mean [95% confidence interval]). There were no between-groups change in clinical measures from baseline to 3 and 6 months. In conclusion, VO2max was unaffected by 6 months of daily Calanus oil supplementation in healthy, physically fit, normal to overweight men and women between 30 and 50 years old.

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The Effects of Blackcurrant and Caffeine Combinations on Performance and Physiology During Repeated High-Intensity Cycling

Carl D. Paton, Lillian C. Morton, Benoit Bomal, and Andrea J. Braakhuis

Blackcurrant juices and extracts containing anthocyanin may provide ergogenic benefits to sports performance. However, there are no studies examining the effects of coingestion of blackcurrant and caffeine. This investigation examined the effects of acute supplementation with a proprietary blackcurrant beverage administered in isolation or in combination with caffeine on repeated high-intensity cycling. Twelve well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: age, 39.5 ± 11.4 years; height, 177.9 ± 5.7 cm; weight, 78.2 ± 8.9 kg; and peak oxygen consumption, 4.71 ± 0.61 L/min) completed experimental sessions consisting of repeated (8 × 5 min) maximal intensity efforts. Four experimental treatments were administered in a double-blind, balanced Latin square design: blackcurrant + caffeine, blackcurrant + placebo, caffeine + placebo and placebo + placebo. Differences in power output, heart rate, oxygen consumption, muscle oxygen saturation, rate of perceived exertion, and cognitive function (Stroop) were compared between treatments using two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and effect size analysis. There were no significant differences (p > .05) in either physiological or cognitive variables with any supplement treatment (blackcurrant + caffeine, blackcurrant + placebo, and caffeine + placebo) relative to placebo + placebo. Moreover, any observed differences were deemed trivial (d < 0.2) in magnitude. However, power output was lower (p < .05) in blackcurrant + placebo compared with blackcurrant + caffeine. A blackcurrant extract beverage administered in isolation or combination with caffeine provided no beneficial effect on cycling performance or physiological measures relative to a placebo control.

Open access

Assessment of Exercise-Associated Gastrointestinal Perturbations in Research and Practical Settings: Methodological Concerns and Recommendations for Best Practice

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Pascale Young, Samantha K. Gill, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe, Stephanie Gaskell, Isabella Russo, and Louise M. Burke

Strenuous exercise is synonymous with disturbing gastrointestinal integrity and function, subsequently prompting systemic immune responses and exercise-associated gastrointestinal symptoms, a condition established as “exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.” When exercise stress and aligned exacerbation factors (i.e., extrinsic and intrinsic) are of substantial magnitude, these exercise-associated gastrointestinal perturbations can cause performance decrements and health implications of clinical significance. This potentially explains the exponential growth in exploratory, mechanistic, and interventional research in exercise gastroenterology to understand, accurately measure and interpret, and prevent or attenuate the performance debilitating and health consequences of exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome. Considering the recent advancement in exercise gastroenterology research, it has been highlighted that published literature in the area is consistently affected by substantial experimental limitations that may affect the accuracy of translating study outcomes into practical application/s and/or design of future research. This perspective methodological review attempts to highlight these concerns and provides guidance to improve the validity, reliability, and robustness of the next generation of exercise gastroenterology research. These methodological concerns include participant screening and description, exertional and exertional heat stress load, dietary control, hydration status, food and fluid provisions, circadian variation, biological sex differences, comprehensive assessment of established markers of exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, validity of gastrointestinal symptoms assessment tool, and data reporting and presentation. Standardized experimental procedures are needed for the accurate interpretation of research findings, avoiding misinterpreted (e.g., pathological relevance of response magnitude) and overstated conclusions (e.g., clinical and practical relevance of intervention research outcomes), which will support more accurate translation into safe practice guidelines.

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Energy Availability Over One Athletic Season: An Observational Study Among Athletes From Different Sports

Filipe Jesus, Mónica Sousa, Catarina L. Nunes, Ruben Francisco, Paulo Rocha, Cláudia S. Minderico, Luís B. Sardinha, and Analiza M. Silva

During the athletic season, changes in body composition occur due to fluctuations in energy expenditure and energy intake. Literature regarding changes of energy availability (EA) is still scarce. The aim was to estimate EA of athletes from nonweight and weight-sensitive sports during the athletic season (i.e., preparatory and competitive phase). Eighty-eight athletes (19.1 ± 4.2 years, 21.8 ± 2.0 kg/m2, 27% females, self-reported eumenorrheic) from five sports (basketball [n = 29]; handball [n = 7]; volleyball [n = 9]; swimming [n = 18]; and triathlon [n = 25]) were included in this observational study. Energy intake and exercise energy expenditure were measured through doubly labeled water (over 7 days and considering neutral energy balance) and metabolic equivalents of tasks, respectively. Fat-free mass (FFM) was assessed through a four-compartment model. EA was calculated as EA = (energy intake − exercise energy expenditure)/FFM. Linear mixed models, adjusted for sex, were performed to assess EA for the impact of time by sport interaction. Among all sports, EA increased over the season: basketball, estimated mean (SE): 7.2 (1.5) kcal/kg FFM, p < .001; handball, 14.8 (2.9) kcal/kg FFM, p < .001; volleyball, 7.9 (2.8) kcal/kg FFM, p = .006; swimming, 8.7 (2.0) kcal/kg FFM, p < .001; and triathlon, 9.6 (2.0) kcal/kg FFM, p < .001. Eleven athletes (12.5%) had clinical low EA at the preparatory phase and none during the competitive phase. During both assessments, triathletes’ EA was below optimal, being lower than basketballers (p < .001), volleyballers (p < .05), and swimmers (p < .001). Although EA increased in all sports, triathlon’s EA was below optimal during both assessments. Risk of low EA might be seasonal and resolved throughout the season, with higher risk during the preparatory phase. However, in weight-sensitive sports, namely triathlon, low EA is still present.

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The Influence of Exercise, Lifestyle Behavior Components, and Physical Fitness on Maternal Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention, and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain

Pedro Acosta-Manzano, Francisco M. Acosta, Irene Coll-Risco, Lidia Romero-Gallardo, Marta Flor-Alemany, Luis J. Martínez-González, María Jesús Alvarez-Cubero, Víctor Segura-Jiménez, and Virginia A. Aparicio

This study examines (a) the influence of exercise, lifestyle behavior components (sedentary time, physical activity, and sleep and dietary patterns), and physical fitness on maternal weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and excessive gestational weight gain and (b) whether exercise protects against the adverse effects of impaired metabolism and nonoptimal body composition related to excessive gestational weight gain. Subjects were assigned to either a supervised concurrent (aerobic + resistance) exercise program followed 3 days/week (n = 47) or a control group (n = 54). Sedentary time, physical activity, sleep and dietary patterns (assessed by accelerometry and questionnaires), muscle strength (handgrip test), and cardiorespiratory fitness (Bruce test) were determined at gestational Weeks 16 and 33 (early-middle and late pregnancy, respectively), and at 6 weeks postpartum. Weight gain and weight retention were calculated using recorded weights at prepregnancy, early-middle, and late pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum. Birth complications, maternal postpartum body composition, cardiometabolic, and inflammatory markers in maternal and umbilical cord arterial and venous blood, and in colostrum, and mature milk were also recorded. The exercise intervention reduced late weight gain (B = −2.7, SE = 0.83, p = .003) and weight retention (B = −2.85, SE = 1.3, p = .03), independent of any lifestyle behavior component or physical fitness, but did not prevent excessive weight gain. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and sleep duration were associated with a smaller mean weight gain and lower excessive weight gain values (p < .05). Among the participants who experienced excessive weight gain, those who were exercisers had a lower body mass index and systemic tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentration, lower umbilical cord venous tumor necrosis factor-alpha and arterial interferon gamma levels, higher cord arterial interleukin-10 levels, and improved placental function compared with controls (p < .05). In summary, exercise may help optimize gestational weight gain and weight retention, and may attenuate the impaired phenotype related to excessive weight gain. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and sleep duration might help to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

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Evening Caffeine Did Not Improve 100-m Swimming Time Trials Performed 60 Min Post-Ingestion or the Next Morning After Sleep

Josh W. Newbury, Bryan Saunders, and Lewis A. Gough

The potential ergogenic benefits of caffeine (CAF) are well known within the athletic community, often leading to its use in adolescent swimming cohorts to enhance their performance. However, it has previously been reported that CAF has sleep-disturbing effects, which could be detrimental to performance over consecutive days in multiday competitions. Moreover, the effects that evening CAF ingestion has on sleep, side effects, and next-day performances are yet to be researched in trained adolescents. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover design, eight national-level swimmers (age: 18 ± 1 years, height: 1.76 ± 0.06 cm, body mass [BM]: 69.4 ± 6.4 kg) ingested a capsule containing 3 mg/kg BM CAF or a placebo 60 min before an evening 100-m swimming time trial. The next morning, sleep was analyzed (Core Consensus Sleep Diary) and 100-m time trials were repeated. Side effects were analyzed via visual analog scales throughout the study. No differences were found for swimming performance (p = .911) in the evening (CAF: 59.5 ± 7.8 s, placebo: 59.9 ± 7.9 s, g = 0.06) or morning (CAF: 59.7 ± 7.7 s, placebo: 60.2 ± 7.9 s, g = 0.07). In addition, no group differences were found for any subjective side effects (e.g., anxiety: p = .468, tachycardia: p = .859, alertness: p = .959) or sleep parameters (e.g., sleep latency: p = .395, total sleep time: p = .574). These results question the use of a standardized 3 mg/kg BM CAF ingestion strategy for 100-m swimming time trials in trained adolescents, although objective measures may be needed to confirm that CAF does not affect sleep within this cohort.

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Volume 32 (2022): Issue 4 (Jul 2022)

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Comment on: “Association of Vitamin D Supplementation in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Muscle Strength in Adult Twins: A Randomized Controlled Trial”

Nicholas B. Tiller