Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Mark Jankowski, Sarah Partington, Nick Heather, and Elizabeth Partington
The purpose of this study was to provide new knowledge about the temporal and contextual aspects of the alcohol–sport relationship. Eight U.K. student-athletes completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in their final year at university, 18 months, and 30 months after graduation. They also completed semistructured interviews about their drinking motives, behaviors, and life circumstances. Results showed that participants reduced their alcohol consumption after leaving university, but despite the onset of some adult responsibilities, most were still drinking at hazardous levels. After university, drinking took place with old friends, new colleagues, and new sporting teammates. At all time points, social drinking motives were the most prevalent. Findings demonstrate a relationship between alcohol and sport that is cemented at university but continues beyond it. Targeted interventions to reduce the role of alcohol in the social experience of sport are needed to support long-term athlete health.
Utku Berberoğlu and Özlem Ülger
Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the top 3 diseases that may lead to disability. Current treatment guidelines define exercise as a first-line treatment for nonspecific LBP (NSLBP). There are various evidence-based exercise approaches for treating NSLBP, and many of them include motor control principles. Motor control exercises (MCEs) are better than general exercises that do not include motor control principles. Many patients find learning these exercises complex and challenging, in that MCE exercises have no standard teaching method. The researchers of this study developed multimedia instructions for an MCE program to make teaching MCE easier; thus, more effective. Methods: The participants were randomized into multimedia or standard (face-to-face) instruction groups. We applied the same treatments to both groups at the same dosage. The only differences between groups were the exercise instruction methods. The multimedia group learned MCE from multimedia videos; the control group learned MCE from a physiotherapist with face-to-face instructions. Treatment lasted 8 weeks. We evaluated patients’ exercise adherence with Exercise Adherence Rating Scale (EARS), pain with the Visual Analog Scale, and disability with Oswestry Disability Index. Evaluations were made before and after treatment. Follow-up evaluations were carried out 4 weeks after the end of treatment. Results: There was no statistically significant interaction between the group and time on pain, F 2,56 = 0.068, P = .935, partial η 2 = .002 and Oswestry Disability Index scores, F 2,56 = 0.951, P = .393, partial η 2 = .033. Also, there was no statistically significant interaction between the group and time on Exercise Adherence Rating Scale total scores F 1,20 = 2.343, P = .142, partial η 2 = .105. Conclusions: This study showed that multimedia instructions for MCE have similar effects to standard (face-to-face) instructions on pain, disability, and exercise adherence in patients with NSLBP. To our knowledge, with these results, the developed multimedia instructions became the first free, evidence-based instructions that have objective progression criteria and a Creative Commons license.
Katherine A. Bain, Shelby Baez, Kyle B. Kosik, Matthew C. Hoch, Johanna M. Hoch, Nathan F. Johnson, Richard D. Andreatta, and Phillip A. Gribble
Context: Many individuals who sustain a lateral ankle sprain (LAS) fail to return to prior activity due to residual symptoms; and report elevated levels of injury-related fear, decreased function, and decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Additionally, individuals with history of LAS exhibit deficits in neurocognitive functional measures like visuomotor reaction time (VMRT), which contributes to worse patient-reported outcome scores. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between HRQOL and lower-extremity (LE) VMRT in individuals with LAS history. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Young adult female volunteers with history of LAS (n = 22; age = 24 [3.5] y; height = 163.1 [9.8] cm; mass = 65.1 [11.5] kg; and time since last LAS = 67.8 [50.5] mo) completed HRQOL outcomes including the following: (1) Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-11, (2) Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, (3) Penn State Worry Questionnaire, (4) modified Disablement in the Physically Active Scale, and (5) Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI). Additionally, participants completed a LE-VMRT task by responding to a visual stimulus using their foot to deactivate light sensors. Participants completed trials bilaterally. Separate Spearman rho correlations were performed to assess the relationship between patient-reported outcomes assessing constructs of HRQOL and LE-VRMT bilaterally. Significance was set at P < .05. Results: There was a strong, significant negative correlation between FADI-Activities of Daily Living (ρ = −.68; P = .002) and FADI-Sport (ρ = −.76; P = .001) scores and injured limb LE-VMRT; moderate, significant negative correlations between the uninjured limb LE-VMRT and FADI-Activities of Daily Living (ρ = −.60; P = .01) and FADI-Sport (ρ = −.60; P = .01) scores; and moderate, significant positive correlations between the injured limb LE-VMRT and modified Disablement in the Physically Active Scale-Physical Summary Component (ρ = .52; P = .01) and modified Disablement in the Physically Active Scale-Total (ρ = .54; P = .02) scores. All other correlations were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Young adult women with history of LAS demonstrated an association between self-reported constructs of HRQOL and LE-VMRT. As LE-VMRT is a modifiable injury risk factor, future studies should examine the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve LE-VMRT and the impact on self-reported HRQOL.
Sergio Barroso Rosa, Manuel Aniel-Quiroga Bilbao, and Daniel De Santos Tena
Tarsal navicular stress fractures are rare injuries, mostly occurring in long-distance runners, jumpers, and occasionally affecting athletes in high-contact sports such as rugby or American/Australian football. This condition generally represents a clinical challenge, resulting in considerable diagnostic delays. While the ideal treatment is still controversial, surgical treatment seems to provide good results in recovering function and return to play. Tarsal navicular stress fractures have been extremely rare in soccer players; only seven published cases have been located to date. This article is a paradigmatic report on a professional player with this injury and a successful outcome after a 12-year follow-up.
Sana Affes, Rihab Borji, Nidhal Zarrouk, Thouraya Fendri, Sonia Sahli, and Haithem Rebai
This study explored the acute effects of different running intensities on cognitive and motor performances in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). An ID group (age, M = 15.25 years, SD = 2.76) and a control group without ID (age, M = 15.11 years, SD = 1.54) performed visual simple and choice reaction times, auditory simple reaction time, and finger tapping tests before and after running at low or moderate intensity (30% and 60% of heart rate reserve [HRR], respectively). Visual simple reaction time values decreased (p < .001) after both intensities at all time points with higher (p = .007) extend after the 60% HRR intensity for both groups. After both intensities, the VCRT decreased (p < .001) in the ID group at all time points compared with preexercise (Pre-EX) while, in the control group, these values decreased (p < .001) only immediately (IM-EX) and after 10 min (Post-10) of exercise cessation. Compared withs Pre-EX, in the ID group, the auditory simple reaction time values decreased (p < .001) at all time points after the 30% HHR intensity whereas, after the 60% HRR, these values decreased only at IM-EX (p < .001), Post-10 (p = .001) and Post-20 (p < .001). In the control group, auditory simple reaction time values decreased (p = .002) only after the 30% HRR intensity at IM-EX. The finger tapping test increased at IM-EX (p < .001) and at Post-20 (p = .001) compared to Pre-EX in both groups only after the 30% HHR intensity and for the dominant hand. The effect of physical exercise on cognitive performances in individuals with ID seems to depend on the cognitive test type as well as the exercise intensity.