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On-Field Methodological Approach to Monitor the Menstrual Cycle and Hormonal Phases in Elite Female Athletes

Marine Dupuit, Alice Meignié, Tom Chassard, Ludivine Blanquet, Julien LeHeran, Thomas Delaunay, Elise Bernardeau, Jean-François Toussaint, Martine Duclos, and Juliana Antero

Objectives: Currently, there are no guidelines for implementing the monitoring of menstrual status, including the natural menstrual cycle (NC) or oral contraception (OC), in a sport setting. We aimed to provide a feasible, on-field methodological approach for monitoring NC and OC in female athletes. Methods: We developed a smartphone app with daily questionnaires to monitor both NC and OC phases in 19 elite female soccer players (23.7 [4.4] y) over 7 months. Adherence and compliance were evaluated. The NC and OC phases were based on calendar data to establish an individual menstrual profile for each athlete. Results: The initial questionnaire revealed that the vast majority of female players (80%) were interested in monitoring their menstrual status. The online monitoring yielded high athlete adherence (87.0% [14.2%]) with a slight decrease over the winter break and at the end of the championship, which necessitated adaptations to promote compliance. Monitoring identified the specific menstrual pattern of each athlete and highlighted large interindividual variability. Conclusion: This study assesses, for the first time, the interest of female players in monitoring their menstrual status. It provides a new methodological approach, as well as guidelines for optimizing on-field monitoring. It also anticipates some obstacles sport staff may encounter when trying to implement such follow-up. It is essential to better understand the menstrual profile of athletes and determine its potential impacts on well-being and performance.

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Volume 18 (2023): Issue 9 (Sep 2023): Special Issue: Rugby World Cup 2023—Physiology and Performance Research

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Inconsistent Effect of Psychometric-Scale Familiarization on the Relationship Between Ratings of Perceived Exertion and External Load Measures in Elite Youth Soccer Players

Efthymios Kyprianou, Lorenzo Lolli, Matthew Weston, and Warren Gregson

Objectives: To examine the moderating effect of familiarization on the relationship between external load and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) in elite youth soccer players. Methods: Thirty-five elite male youth soccer players were monitored over a 31-week period. Players had no previous experience using the centiMax scale (arbitrary units [AU]). The final sample included familiarized (blackness test; n = 20) and nonfamiliarized players (n = 15) with the Borg centiMax scale. Players recorded a global RPE and differential RPEs (dRPE) for breathlessness (RPE-B) and leg-muscle exertion (RPE-L) 15 to 30 minutes following training sessions and competitive matches. Separate multivariable-adjusted random-effects generalized additive models with restricted maximum likelihood quantified familiarization versus no-familiarization differences in actual perceived exertion score (in AU) by number of accelerations, decelerations, and high-speed running distance (in meters) as predictor variables, respectively. Results: Players improved their blackness test score from 39% to 78%. For explorations by number of accelerations, familiarization effects were not practically relevant for the RPE and RPE-B variables. The width and sign of the effects for the RPE-L variable at 30 efforts of 10 AU (95% CI, 4–16 AU) suggested that scores were lower for players who underwent familiarization versus players who did not. Familiarization effects were not practically relevant for any RPE variable irrespective of the number of deceleration efforts and high-speed running distance covered. Conclusion: Improved performance on the blackness test did not have a moderating effect on the relationship between proxy measures of external load and RPEs.

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Assessing the Use of Heart-Rate Monitoring for Competitive Swimmers

Hugh Sixsmith, Stephen Crowcroft, and Katie Slattery

Purpose: Quantifying training intensity provides a comprehensive understanding of the training stimulus. Recent technological advances may have improved the feasibility of using heart-rate (HR) monitoring in swimming. However, the implementation of HR monitoring is yet to be assessed longitudinally in the daily training environment of swimmers. This study aimed to assess the implementation of HR by comparing the training-intensity distribution from an external measure, planned volume at set intensities (PVSI), with the internal training-intensity distribution measured using time in HR zones. Methods: Using a longitudinal observational design, 10 competitive swimmers (8 male and 2 female, age: 22.0 [2.3] y, Fédération Internationale de Natation point score: 842.9 [58.5], mean [SD]) were monitored daily for 6 months. Each session, HR data, and coached-planned and athlete-reported session rating of perceived exertion (Modified Category Ratio 10 scale) were recorded. Based on previously determined training zones from an incremental step test, PVSI was calculated using the planned distance and planned intensity of each swim bout. Training-intensity distributions were analyzed using a linear mixed model (lme4). Results: The model revealed a small to moderate relationship between PVSI and time in HR zone, based on the Nakagawa R-squared value (range .14–.42). Conclusions: Training-intensity distribution differed between the internal measure (ie, HR) and the external measure of intensity (ie, PVSI). This demonstrates that internal and planned external measures of intensity cannot be used interchangeably to monitor training. Further research should explore how to best integrate these measures to better understand training in swimming.

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Hemoglobin Mass and Blood Volume in Swimming: A Comparison Between Highly Trained, Elite, and World-Class Swimmers

Iñigo Mujika, Grégoire P. Millet, Irina Zelenkova, and Nicolas Bourdillon

Purpose: Total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass) and blood volume (BV) are important determinants of maximal oxygen uptake and endurance capacity. Higher-caliber endurance athletes usually possess higher tHbmass and BV values. This study aimed to compare tHbmass and BV among swimmers of diverse competitive calibers and distances. Methods: Thirty swimmers (16 female and 14 male) participated in the study: 3 were tier 5, world class (869 [59] FINA points); 15 were tier 4, elite/international (853 [38] points); and 12 were tier 3, highly trained/national (808 [35] points). They specialized in competition distances ranging from 200 m to open-water 10 km. Between February 2019 and February 2020, all swimmers had their tHbmass and BV measured by carbon monoxide rebreathing 1 to 6 times and participated in multiple competitions and race events. Results: Relative tHbmass and BV were not different (P > .05) between tiers among women or among men (pooled tHbmass values 14.5 [0.5], 12.5 [1.5], 12.6 [2.3] g/kg for tier 5, tier 4, and tier 3, respectively). No differences were observed in relative tHbmass (P = .215) and BV (P = .458) between pool and open-water swimmers or between 200-, 400-, and 1500-m specialists (P > .05). No significant correlations were found between the highest measured absolute or relative tHbmass and BV and the highest FINA points scored over the follow-up period (R = −.42–.17, P = .256–.833), irrespective of competition distance. Conclusion: tHbmass and BV values did not differ between swimmers of different calibers or among competition distances. Furthermore, these values did not correlate with FINA points, either in males or in females. The present results indicate that hematological characteristics may have a lesser impact on swimming performance than on land-based endurance sports.

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Examining the Talent Selection Determinants of Ultimate Frisbee Players Selected Into a National Youth Team

Jonathan D. Connor, Daniel Berkelmans, and Kenji Doma

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine whether various athletic performances, anthropometric measures, and playing experience differentiate selected and nonselected ultimate Frisbee players trialing to compete in the world championship. Methods: Forty-three Australian male ultimate Frisbee players (age = 21.2 [1.2] y; height = 1.7 [6.8] m; body mass = 69.7 [8.2] kg; playing experience = 3.5 [1.5] y) participated in a 30-m sprint test, single-leg run-up jump approach (both left [JumpLL], and right leg [JumpRL]) and a stationary bilateral vertical jump (JumpBIL), and change-of-direction speed test. Following a selection camp, players were subdivided according to their selection or nonselection into the team. Results: A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that height, 10-m sprint time, acceleration, JumpLL, JumpRL, and JumpBIL were significantly greater for selected players than nonselected players (P < .05). Area under the curve (AUC) was greatest for JumpRL (AUC = 79%; optimal cutoff value of 37.5 cm, sensitivity and specificity values of 77% and 71%, respectively), JumpLL (AUC = 74%; optimal cutoff 38.5 cm, sensitivity and specificity values 77% and 77%, respectively), and JumpBIL (AUC = 78%; optimal cutoff value of 40.5 cm, sensitivity and specificity values 71% and 79%, respectively). The largest AUC (AUC = 81%; 95% CI 0.66–0.97; P = .001) was found when combining the explanatory variables that demonstrated moderate to large effect sizes (ie, height, playing experience, 10-m sprint, acceleration, JumpLL, JumpRL, and JumpBIL), with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 71%. Conclusion: These athletic performance and anthropometric characteristics differentiating selected and nonselected players may help inform targeted training and player-development strategies.

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What Does It Take to Become a Professional Cyclist? A Laboratory-Based Longitudinal Analysis in Competitive Young Riders

Pedro L. Valenzuela, Lidia B. Alejo, Alejandro Lucia, and David Barranco-Gil

Purpose: Laboratory-based indicators are commonly used for performance assessment in young cyclists. However, evidence supporting the use of these indicators mostly comes from cross-sectional research, and their validity as predictors of potential future performance remains unclear. We aimed to assess the role of laboratory variables for predicting transition from U23 (under 23 y) to professional category in young cyclists. Methods: Sixty-five U23 male road cyclists (19.6 [1.5] y) were studied. Endurance (maximal graded test and simulated 8-min time trial [TT]), muscle strength/power (squat, lunge, and hip thrust), and body composition (assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) indicators were determined. Participants were subsequently followed and categorized attending to whether they had transitioned (“Pro”) or not (“Non-Pro”) to the professional category during the study period. Results: The median follow-up period was 3 years. Pro cyclists (n = 16) showed significantly higher values than Non-Pro riders (n = 49) for ventilatory thresholds, peak power output, peak oxygen uptake, and TT performance (all P < .05, effect size > 0.69) and lower levels of fat mass and bone mineral content/density (P < .05, effect size > 0.63). However, no significant differences were found for muscle strength/power indicators (P > .05, effect size < 49). The most accurate individual predictor was TT performance (overall predictive value = 76% for a cutoff value of 5.6 W·kg−1). However, some variables that did not reach statistical significance in univariate analyses contributed significantly to a multivariate model (R 2 = .79, overall predictive value = 94%). Conclusions: Although different “classic” laboratory-based endurance indicators can predict the potential of reaching the professional category in U23 cyclists, a practical indicator such as 8-minute TT performance showed the highest prediction accuracy.

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Age-Related Reference Intervals for Physical Performance Test Outcomes Relevant to Male Youth Middle Eastern Football Players

Lorenzo Lolli, Warren Gregson, Daniele Bonanno, Sami Kuitunen, and Valter Di Salvo

Purpose: To develop age-specific reference intervals for physical performance test outcomes relevant to male youth Middle Eastern football players. Methods: We analyzed mixed-longitudinal data (observations range: 1751–1943 assessments) from a sample of 441 male youth outfield football players (chronological age range: 11.7–18.4 y) as part of the Qatar Football Association and Aspire Academy development program over 14 competitive seasons. Semiparametric generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape estimated age-specific reference centiles for 10-m sprinting, 40-m sprinting, countermovement jump height, and maximal aerobic speed variables. Results: The estimated reference intervals indicated that the distribution of the physical performance test scores increased monotonically and nonlinearly with advancing chronological age for sprinting and countermovement jump outcome measures, reaching a plateau after 16 years common to each of these performance variables. The maximal aerobic speed median score increased substantially until ∼14.5 years, with the nonlinear trend flattening off toward relatively older chronological ages. Conclusions: We developed age-related reference intervals for physical performance test outcomes relevant to youth Qatari football players. Country-wide age-specific reference intervals can assist in the longitudinal tracking of the individual players’ progress over time against benchmark values derived from the reference population.

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Exhaustive Intermittent Cycling Preferentially Decreases Explosive Over Maximal Voluntary Torque in the Knee Extensors, With No Difference Between Normoxia and Moderate to Severe Hypoxia

Olivier Girard and Sébastien Racinais

Purpose: To compare the effects of graded hypoxia during exhaustive intermittent cycling on subsequent rapid and maximal torque-production capacity. Methods: Fifteen well-trained cyclists repeated intermittent cycling bouts (15 s at 30% of anaerobic power reserve; rest = 45 s) until exhaustion at sea level (FiO2 ∼0.21/end-exercise arterial oxygen saturation ∼96%), moderate hypoxia (FiO2 ∼0.16/∼90%), and severe hypoxia (FiO2 ∼0.12/∼79%). Rapid (rate of torque development [RTD]) and maximal isometric torque-production capacities of the knee extensors were assessed at baseline (visit 1) and exhaustion (visits 2–4). Results: Exercise capacity decreased with hypoxia severity (39 [30], 22 [13], and 13 [6] cycle efforts in sea level, moderate hypoxia, and severe hypoxia, respectively; P = .002). Changes in maximal-voluntary-contraction torque between baseline and postexercise in all conditions were not statistically significant (pooled values: −2.6% [5.7%]; P = .162). Peak RTD measured postexercise was reduced below baseline in all conditions (–21.5% [5.1%]; P ≤ .015). Compared with baseline, absolute RTD values were lower at 0- to 30-millisecond (–35.1% [5.3%], P ≤ .020), 0- to 50-millisecond (–40.0% [3.9%], P ≤ .002), 0- to 100-millisecond (–30.7% [3.7%], P ≤ .001), and 0- to 200-millisecond (–18.1% [2.4%], P ≤ .004) time intervals in all conditions. Conclusions: Exhaustive intermittent cycling induces substantial yet comparable impairments in RTD of knee extensors between normoxia and moderate to severe hypoxia.

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Blood Lactate Responses of Male and Female Players Across an International Rugby Sevens Tournament

Carl James, James Rees, Henry Chong, Lee Taylor, Christopher M. Beaven, Mitch Henderson, and Julien S. Baker

Purpose: This study investigated within- and between-matches blood lactate (La) responses across an international Rugby Sevens tournament (5 matches over 2 d) in male and female players. Methods: Earlobe blood samples were taken from 25 professional players around matches: before warm-up (PRE), immediately upon finishing match participation (POST), and 30 minutes postmatch (30 min). Results: POST [La] (mean [SD], range) for males was 10.3 (3.2; 2.9–20.2) mmol·L−1 and for females was 9.1 (2.3; 3.4–14.6) mmol·L−1. Linear mixed-effects models revealed a decrease in POST [La] after match 5, compared to match 1. Increased PRE [La] was found before match 2 (+0.8 [0.6–1.1] mmol·L−1), match 3 (+0.8 [0.5–1.1] mmol·L−1), and match 5 (+0.6 [0.4–0.9] mmol·L−1) compared to match 1 (all P < .001). The [La] remained elevated at 30 min, compared to PRE (+1.7 [1.4–2.0] mmol·L−1, P < .001), with ∼20% of values persisting >4 mmol·L−1. Higher POST was observed in males compared to females (+1.6 [0.1–3.2] mmol·L−1, P = .042); however, no differences between sexes were found across 30 min or PRE [La]. No [La] differences between positions (backs and forwards) were identified. Conclusions: Lactate concentrations above 10 mmol·L−1 are required to effectively simulate the anaerobic demands of international Rugby Sevens matches. Practitioners are advised to individualize anaerobic training prescription due to the substantial variability observed within positional groups. Additionally, improving athletes’ metabolic recovery capacity through training, nutrition, and recovery interventions may enhance physical preparation for subsequent matches within a day, where incomplete lactate clearance was observed.