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Harshvardhan Singh, Bethany A. Moore, Roshita Rathore, Michael G. Bemben, and Debra A. Bemben

The authors examined sex-specific relationships between fat mass index (FMI), android/gynoid (A/G) fat ratio, relative skeletal muscle mass index, and Bone-Specific Physical Activity Questionnaire derived bone-loading scores (BLSs) in middle-aged and older adults (men, n = 27; women, n = 33; age = 55–75 years). The FMI, A/G fat ratio, and relative skeletal muscle mass index were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The Bone-Specific Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess: (a) BLSpast (age 1 until 12 months before the study visit), (b) BLScurrent (last 12 months), and (c) BLStotal (average of [a] and [b]) scores. Separate multiple linear regression analysis of (a) age, FMI, and relative skeletal muscle mass index and (b) age, height, and A/G fat ratio versus BLS revealed that FMI and A/G fat ratio were negatively associated with BLSpast and BLStotal (p < .05) in women only. Adiposity and, specifically, central adiposity is negatively related to bone-loading physical activity in middle-aged and older women.

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Victoria S. Davila, David E. Conroy, and Margaret K. Danilovich

Walking interventions improve health outcomes among older adults. However, few clinical trials evaluate long-term behavior change adherence. The authors explored factors that influence walking adherence in older adults following their participation in a clinical trial. They conducted n = 7 focus groups with n = 23 participants enrolled in the parent study (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03654807). The authors used content analysis to code data according to the social–ecological model. They found that supportive services (exercise classes) in retirement communities have multilevel impacts on adherence to walking activity. Residents from communities offering services continued walking because of increased confidence gained in the parent trial, while residents in communities without services were motivated by their functional improvements. Residents voiced frustration with retirement community physical activity programs that did not address the full spectrum of physical functioning. Findings support the need for retirement communities to account for various motivational factors in tailoring programs to promote increased physical activity for older adults.

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Cristina Garagarza, Ana Valente, Cristina Caetano, Inês Ramos, Joana Sebastião, Mariana Pinto, Telma Oliveira, Aníbal Ferreira, and Catarina Sousa Guerreiro

Background: Physical inactivity and muscle wasting potentiate each other and are highly prevalent among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The authors evaluated the association between physical activity (PA), clinical, nutritional, and body composition parameters in HD patients. Methods: Multicenter cross-sectional study with 581 HD patients. Clinical, body composition, dietary intake, and PA data were recorded. For the analysis, patients were divided into active (follow World Health Organization recommendations) and inactive groups. Results: A total of 20% of the patients followed World Health Organization recommendations on PA. Differences between physically active and physically inactive patients were observed in age, biochemical parameters and total body water, intracellular water, lean tissue index (LTI), body cell mass, energy, and protein intake. PA was a predictor of higher LTI, body cell mass, and energy intake independently of age, gender, presence of diabetes, dialysis adequacy, and dialysis vintage. Controlling for the effect of age, walking and vigorous PA were positively correlated with energy and protein intake. Vigorous PA was also positively correlated with LTI. Conclusion: The PA is a predictor of higher LTI, body cell mass, and energy intake. Vigorous PA is associated with an improved body composition and dietary pattern, whereas walking seems to be also associated with a favorable nutritional status.

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Limin Buchanan, Huilan Xu, Lyndel Hewitt, Sarah Taki, and Li Ming Wen

Background: Evidence links tummy time (ie, the time spent in awake prone positioning that is encouraged and supervised by an adult) to infants’ health outcomes such as gross motor and total development. However, the associations between tummy time and other movement and sleep behaviors as the child develops remain unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether early introduction and practice of tummy time within the first 6 months of age were associated with active and outdoor playtime, screen time, and nocturnal sleep time of children when they were 12 and 24 months old. Methods: A longitudinal analysis was conducted using data extracted from an Australian trial. Using telephone surveys with mothers, demographic data were collected from third trimester of pregnancy and tummy time data were collected at 6 months of age. Data on playtime, screen time, and nocturnal sleep duration as dependent variables were collected at 12 and 24 months of age. Multiple logistic regression models were built to investigate the associations. Results: Children who started tummy time within 4 weeks of age were more likely to have >10 hours sleep at night at 12 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval, 1.08–2.19). They were more likely to have >3 hours per day of outdoor play and have <1 hour per day of screen time at 24 months. Children who practiced tummy time every day were more likely to have >2 hours per day of active play at 12 months and have <1 hour per day of screen time at 24 months. Conclusions: Starting tummy time earlier and frequently was associated with more favorable movement and sleep of young children at 12 and 24 months of age.

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Hansel R. García-Correa, Lida J. Sánchez-Montoya, Jorge E. Daza-Arana, and Leidy T. Ordoñez-Mora

Background: Currently, chronic pain is a disabling condition that is difficult to manage, which generates a high burden on health systems. The objective is to determine the effects of aerobic physical exercise in adults with chronic pain. Methods: A systematic review of searches in databases including MEDLINE, LILACS, ScienceDirect, PEDro, OTseeker, The Cochrane Library, EBSCO, and Google Scholar was conducted. The search process was carried out until July 31, 2020, and the study selection process was independently carried out through a criteria analysis for each phase. Outcome measures were chosen: aerobic capacity, physical function, quality of life, and pain. Results: Twenty-seven studies were included in which aerobic exercise was considered as an option to treat chronic pain. These studies showed significant results compared with other treatment options in terms of pain measurements (−0.22 [−0.42 to −0.03]) and aerobic capacity. For quality of life, there were significant improvements in the physical function component over the mental health component evaluated with the short form health survey-36/12. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is a nonpharmacological therapeutic option for treatment. Also, aerobic capacity and endurance improved when this type of exercise was prescribed, thus resulting in a substantial improvement in the quality of life of people suffering from chronic pain.

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Michael J. Duncan, Darren Richardson, Rhys Morris, Emma Eyre, and Neil D. Clarke

The present study examined the test–retest reliability of the Ghent University dribbling test and short dribble test in a pediatric population. Fifty-four boys aged 9–14 years (mean ± SD = 11 ± 2 years) undertook the Ghent University and dribbling tests on two occasions separated by 2 weeks. Intraclass correlation coefficients, coefficient of variation, and 95% limits of agreement were conducted for each test. Intraclass correlation coefficients and coefficient of variation indicated good to excellent reliability, and relatively small variability for both dribbling tests. The 95% limits of agreement indicated relatively little bias Ghent University dribbling test for both running alone and running with the ball components, and the Bangsbo and Mohr short dribble test. The results of the present study suggest both dribbling tests examined in the present study demonstrate good reliability and low levels of systematic bias.

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Mary N. Woessner, Michael A. Welsch, Mitch D. VanBruggen, Neil M. Johannsen, Daniel P. Credeur, Carl F. Pieper, Richard Sloane, Conrad P. Earnest, Joaquin Ortiz De Zevallos Munoz, Timothy S. Church, Eric Ravussin, William E. Kraus, and Jason D. Allen

Exercise training beneficially moderates the effects of vascular aging. This study compared the efficacy of Peripheral Remodeling through Intermittent Muscular Exercise (PRIME), a novel training regimen, versus aerobic training on hemodynamic profiles in participants ≥70 years at risk for losing functional independence. Seventy-five participants (52 females, age: 76 ± 5 years) were assessed for hemodynamic and vascular function at baseline, after 4 weeks of either PRIME or aerobic training (Phase 1) and again after a further 8 weeks of aerobic and resistance training (Phase 2). Data were analyzed using 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance models on the change in each dependent variable. PRIME demonstrated reductions in brachial and aortic mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p < .05) from baseline after Phase 1, which were sustained throughout Phase 2. Earlier and greater reductions in blood pressure following PRIME support the proposal that peripheral muscular training could beneficial for older individuals commencing an exercise program.

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Kellie Walters, Mary Marshall, Alexandra Nicole Wilkinson, and Michael Duxx Natividad

Social connection is vital for older adults’ physical and psychological well-being, yet nearly one third of them report feeling lonely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a monthly walking program (walking once a month for 8 months) on older adults’ community connection. Older adults (M age = 78.06 ± 5.98 years) completed a focus group at the completion of the program (n = 15). Qualitative findings indicate that participation in the walking program led to enhanced social connection. Researchers developed six major themes: (1) frequent and engaging walking programs, (2) benefits of group activity, (3) enhanced social connections, (4) connection to the community, (5) knowledge about transit, and (6) personal well-being, and 10 subthemes. Implications from this study highlight the importance of designing a walking program with older adults’ needs and desires in mind.

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Heather M. Macdonald, Lindsay Nettlefold, Adrian Bauman, Joanie Sims-Gould, and Heather A. McKay

Convergent validity and responsiveness to change of the single-item physical activity measure were assessed in adults aged 60 years and older, at baseline (n = 205) and 6 months (n = 177) of a health promotion program, Choose to Move. Spearman correlations were used to examine associations between physical activity as measured by the single-item measure and the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire at baseline and for 6-month change in all participants and for sex and age (60–74 years, and ≥75 years) subgroups. Effect size assessed responsiveness to change in physical activity for both tools. Baseline physical activity by the single-item measure correlated moderately with physical activity by the CHAMPS questionnaire in all participants and subgroups. Correlations were weaker for change in physical activity. Effect size for physical activity change was larger for the single-item measure than for the CHAMPS questionnaire. The single-item measure is a valid, pragmatic tool for use in intervention and scale-up studies with older adults.

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Daniel Wadsworth, Janet Turnbull, and Sally Lark

The aim of this study was to identify the psychological effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise in frail older adults. About 117 male and female volunteers (82.5 ± 7.9 years) from residential care facilities were randomized and assigned to control, simulated exercise (SIM), or WBV exercise (WBV) groups. All received regular care, while exercise groups also underwent 16 weeks of training (3 × 20 min/week). WBV exercise began with 5 × 1 min bouts (6 Hz/2 mm, 1:1 min exercise:rest), self-progressing to 10 × 1 min (up to 26 Hz/4 mm), and maintaining knee flexion. SIM training mimicked exercise stance and duration. Pre- and post-measures of falls–confidence, quality of life, and functional independence were completed using validated questionnaires. Functional independence and falls–confidence scores increased by 5.8% and 17.4% respectively with WBV exercise, compared with declines in SIM (p = .074/p = .035, respectively) and control (p = .000/p = .000, respectively) participants. Beneficial effects remained for at least 6-month post-intervention. Further WBV benefits were observed in activity, mobility, and self-care elements of quality of life. Sixteen weeks of low-level WBV exercise is sufficient to enhance frail older adults’ falls-related confidence, quality of life, and functional independence.