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Accelerometry Measured Movement Behaviors in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the ELSA-Brasil Study

Danilo de Paula, Inácio Crochemore-Silva, Rosane Harter Griep, Bruce Bartholow Duncan, and Maria Inês Schmidt

Background: Little investigation of accelerometry assessed movement behaviors and physical inactivity was carried out in middle-aged and older adults in low-middle-income countries. Objective: Describe accelerometry-measured movement behaviors and prevalence of physical inactivity in middle-aged and older adults. Methods: We collected raw accelerometry data during the third visit (2017–2019) of ELSA-Brasil, a large-scale multicenter Brazilian cohort. Participants wore an ActiGraph wGT3X-BT on the waist for 24 hours for 7 days and documented sleep in a diary. Results: Nine thousand two hundred and seventy-nine participants had valid data (73.4% of the eligible cohort). Overall activity was higher for men (11.82mg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.7 to 11.93) than women (10.69mg; 95% CI, 10.6 to 10.77) and lower in older groups—women (−0.12mg/y; 95% CI, −0.13 to −0.11), men (−0.16mg/y; 95% CI, −0.17 to −0.14). Participants were more active from noon to midnight. Distribution of movement behaviors varied with sex and age, and sleep duration was longer in older individuals. Overall, 14.4% (95% CI, 13.7 to 15.1) were inactive, with inactivity being more frequent in women (16.4%; 95% CI, 15.4 to 17.4) than men (12.2%; 95% CI, 11 to 13). Higher rates were observed in the oldest. Retirement was associated with a higher prevalence of physical inactivity in both sexes. Conclusion: Women were less active than men. Older individuals showed a high prevalence of physical inactivity, probably related to transition into retirement. These findings strengthen evidence for public policies promoting physical activity by emphasizing the need to target women, older individuals, and those transitioning to retirement to improve and/or maintain physical activity levels throughout the course of their lives.

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Does Physical Fitness Relate to Academic Achievement in High School Students?

Carla Caroliny de Almeida Santana, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de Barros, Flávio Roberto Carneiro de Medeiros, João Francisco Lins Brayner Rangel Júnior, Francys Paula Cantieri, Daniela Alarcon, and Wagner Luiz do Prado

Background: Academic achievement (AA) is an important issue not only during the school period since it is a strong predictor of long-term professional and social success. Physical fitness (PF) components are associated with AA, and previous studies were conducted with relatively small samples, lack of statistical power, and the conclusions are based on simple correlational analyses. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between PF (single and clustered) with AA in a large and representative sample of high school students. Methods: Cross-sectional design study conducted with 911 students, aged 13–15 years (38.52% boys) enrolled in the first year of high school. Cardiorespiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), muscular strength (dynamometer), and body composition (skinfolds) were measured. PF components were clustered (Z-cardiorespiratory fitness + Z-muscular strength – Z-body fatness). AA was analyzed through standard math tests. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was applied to verify the independent contribution of each single component and PF’s cluster on AA. Age, screen time, maternal education, race, and type of residence were used as covariates. Results: Among boys, cardiorespiratory fitness was negatively associated with AA (β = −0.137; P = .041), while strength was positively associated with AA (β = 0.188; P = .004). There was no association between clustered PF indicators and AA (β = 0.064; P = .297). There was a negative association between age and AA in girls (β = −0.151; P = .003) and in boys (β = −0.128; P = .045). Conclusions: These results support current literature, indicating an association between PF’s component, namely muscular strength and AA (mathematics) in adolescents, even when controlled for several covariates.

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Qualitative Insights on the Importance of Sociocultural Contexts on Asian Indian Migrant Participation in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

Siona Fernandes, Erica Hinckson, and Justin Richards

Background: Influences on physical activity and sedentary behavior may differ for migrants moving from their country of origin to a new country. This study aimed to explore the range of contextual factors that influence physical activity and sedentary behavior among Indian migrants, making comparisons with India. Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 Indian migrants (10 men and 11 women) aged between 18 and 65 years living in Melbourne, Australia. Data were analyzed thematically, coded inductively, and managed with NVivo. Results: Participants perceived a lack of social connection as a key barrier to physical activity participation. Group-based physical activity fostered social connections. Cultural associations were sites to engage in cultural physical activity and integrate with other Indians. Australia’s physical contexts (eg, availability of facilities and built environment) facilitated physical activity behavior. Workplace environments (eg, the nature of the job) prompted sedentary behavior. Other contextual shifts with migration related to activities of daily living (eg, shifts in transport [walking] behavior in India to a greater reliance on cars in Australia) and migrant-friendly health communication (messaging from Australian health/allied health practitioners). Conclusions: Sociocultural contexts remain key influences on migrant physical activity participation. Prioritizing integrated approaches and engaging insider codesign are important in tailoring and promoting migrant physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior.

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Volume 20 (2023): Issue 8 (Aug 2023)

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Unmasking the Political Power of Physical Activity Research: Harnessing the “Apolitical-Ness” as a Catalyst for Addressing the Challenges of Our Time

Eun-Young Lee and Mark S. Tremblay

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Motivational Profile as a Predictor of Physical Activity Among US Adults During the Early Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Daily Diary Study

Kristen N. Moore, Kayla Nuss, Bridgette Do, Shirlene D. Wang, Kaigang Li, Dan J. Graham, Genevieve F. Dunton, and Jimikaye B. Courtney

This study used a daily diary approach to examine associations between day-level physical activity (PA) behavior, PA-specific motivational profile, and days since the COVID-19 national emergency declaration during the early months (April–June 2020) of the pandemic. A total of 468 US adults (M age = 34.8 y, 79% female) participated in a 28-day smartphone-based daily diary study assessing PA. A baseline survey assessed PA and motivation for PA using the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression models examined the main effects and interactions of motivational profile and time (days since the US March 13, 2020, COVID-19 national emergency declaration) on daily PA minutes. Latent profile analysis identified 4 distinct motivational profiles for PA among this sample: profile 1: high amotivation (n = 100, 21%); profile 2: low controlled motivation (n = 55, 12%); profile 3: high external regulation (n = 47, 10%); and profile 4: moderate autonomous motivation (n = 266, 57%). After controlling for baseline PA, there were significant interactions between profile and time on daily PA (−0.21, P < .01). Profile 2 showed greater decreases in daily PA minutes over time than profile 1 (b = −0.29, P < .01). Profiles 3 and 4 did not indicate significant decreases in PA compared with profile 1 (b = 0.14, P = .31 and b = −0.16, P = .05, respectively). Contrary to previous research, individuals with lower controlled or moderate autonomous motivation demonstrated the largest decreases in PA over time, whereas individuals with higher amotivation or external regulation demonstrated smaller decreases over time. These findings suggest that external motivation may have provided short-term protection against declines in PA observed during early months of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Is Binge Drinking Associated With Specific Types of Exercise and Free Time Sports? A Pooled Analysis With 718,147 Adults

Michael Pereira da Silva, Roseane de Fátima Guimarães, Rodrigo Bozza, Thiago Matias, Thiago Silva Piola, Leandro Quadro Corrêa, Virgílio Ramires, Eduardo Alexandrino, and Samuel de Carvalho Dumith

Objective: To verify the association between exercise and free time sport types and binge drinking in a large sample of adults. Methods: Data of 718,147 adults from the “Surveillance of Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey” were used. We described the demographic and behavioral variables, and negative binomial regression analyzed the association between exercise and free time sport types and binge drinking adjusted by demographics variables, body mass index status, and television time. Results: Outdoor walking/running was the most common exercise reported (20.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 19.8%–20.2%), followed by team sports (8.1%; 95% CI, 8.0%–8.2%) and strengthening (8.0%; 95% CI, 7.9%–8.1%). The prevalence of binge drinking for each exercise and free time sport type ranged from 6.9% (water aerobics) to 31.9% (team sports). Participants engaging in strengthening (prevalence ratio = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04–1.21, P = .002) and team sports (prevalence ratio = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.07–1.17, P < .001) were more likely to binge drink more frequently in the past 30 days than inactive participants. Conclusions: It appears that the participants’ profile plays an important role in the underlying social context of this association. Participants with more frequent strengthening and less frequent team sports practice, who were primarily younger and single, were more likely to binge drink frequently.

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From Environmental Racism to Environmental Reparation: The Story of One American City

Jennifer D. Roberts

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The Important and Often Unrecognized Role of Physical Activity for Disease Management Among Highly Climate Vulnerable Clinical Populations

Deborah Salvo, Lisa Sharp, and Sharmilee Nyenhuis

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Prospective Association of Occupational and Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Early Adulthood: Findings From Pelotas (Brazil) 1982 Birth Cohort

Charles Phillipe de Lucena Alves, Inácio Crochemore-Silva, Natália P. Lima, Pieter Coenen, and Bernardo Lessa Horta

Background: The benefits of physical activity in health outcomes are well established. However, recent evidence suggests that benefits may differ by domain and population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prospective association of occupational (OPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: In 1982, the maternity hospitals of Pelotas were visited daily; those live births whose families lived in urban areas were evaluated, and their mothers were later interviewed (n = 5914). In the 2004/5 follow-up (23 y old), both OPA and LTPA were measured in 4295 participants using their respective sections of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In the 2012 follow-up (30 y old), the following cardiovascular risk factors were collected: high-density lipoprotein (in milligrams per deciliter), low-density lipoprotein (in milligrams per deciliter), triglycerides (in milligrams per deciliter), glucose (in milligrams per deciliter), and blood pressure (in millimeters of mercury). Multivariable linear regressions were performed to evaluate associations between OPA and LTPA with these specific cardiovascular risk factors. Results: In total, 3241 participants were analyzed. Our main findings suggest that there was no association between OPA and LTPA with high- and low-density lipoprotein. There were inverse associations between OPA and lower levels of triglycerides among males (β = −0.002; 95% confidence interval, −0.003 to −0.000) and positive associations between LTPA and higher levels of diastolic blood pressure among females (β = 0.111; 95% confidence interval, 0.005–0.216). Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings suggest that there was no association, or association with limited clinical relevance, of OPA and LTPA with cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood.