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Sonam Ali, Megan Kennedy, and Jordana Salma

Older immigrants are at higher risks for inactivity due to cultural, environmental, and social barriers in the postmigration context. Community-based physical activity (PA) programs increase PA in older adults, yet little is known about approaches that specifically target older immigrants. This scoping review explores the literature on community-based programs that increase PA and physical fitness in immigrant older adults and identifies barriers and facilitators to PA program participation in this population. A systematic search of electronic databases and gray literature was conducted, and a total of 11 articles met the inclusion criteria after full-text screening. A range of populations and PA program characteristics are described, yet there is a lack of studies on older immigrant men, Black older immigrants, and immigrants from Arab and African countries. There is a need for further research to develop evidence-informed PA programs for this diverse population.

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Amie Woodward, David Broom, Caroline Dalton, Mostafa Metwally, and Markos Klonizakis

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex, heterogeneous endocrinopathy. Women with PCOS often present with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Physical activity (PA) interventions reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in women with PCOS. However, sedentary behaviors have a distinct deleterious effect on cardiometabolic health. Increasing PA and reducing sedentary behaviors may be a worthwhile therapeutic target to improve cardiovascular health in this population. This study investigated the feasibility of 2 PA interventions to decrease cardiovascular disease risk in women with PCOS. Methods: This was a feasibility randomized controlled trial of 2 PA interventions in 36 women with PCOS. Participants were randomized to a supervised exercise intervention (n = 12), a lifestyle physical activity group intervention aimed at reducing sedentary behaviors (n = 12), or a control group (n = 12), for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions and procedures. Results: Recruitment rate was 56%. Adherence rate was 53% and 100% to the exercise intervention and lifestyle PA intervention, respectively. Secondary outcome data indicate a reduction in oxidized low-density lipoprotein concentrations in the exercise group, and weight loss in both intervention groups. Conclusions: The procedures for recruitment, allocation, and outcome measurements were acceptable. However, before progression to a full-scale trial, adherence to the exercise program should be addressed.

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Karol Dillon, Paul Kinnerk, Ian Sherwin, and Philip E. Kearney

Developing players who are adept at using both sides of the body (i.e., bilateral skill) is a challenge for coaches in many sports. With players being required to execute a range of skills with hand and foot on both sides of the body, Gaelic football provides an ideal natural laboratory for the study of laterality. Previous quantitative research has produced equivocal findings regarding the importance of bilateral skill performance in sport. In light of this equivocality, this paper utilized a qualitative approach to distill the beliefs and experiences of 14 players and five coaches who had performed at the highest level in Gaelic football. Three higher order categories were produced from the transcripts: the importance of being bilaterally skilled, the potential to develop bilateral skill, and methods to develop bilateral skills. Overall, this study highlights lessons for the design of future quantitative studies of bilateral skill in sport and should stimulate reflection on current practice regarding both short- and long-term bilateral skill development on the part of researchers, applied sport scientists, and coaches.

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Stephen Shannon, Mark Shevlin, and Gavin Breslin

Aim: A recent mental health in sport consensus statement advocates Keyes’ two continua model with an associated Mental Health Continuum (MHC) instrument to assess mental health in athletes. However, there remains statistically inconsistent usage of the MHC in athletes, so further exploration of the MHC’s psychometric factors is required. Methods: Athletes (N = 1,097) aged 32.63 (SD = 11.16) comprising 603 females (55.7%) and 478 males (44.3%), completed the 14-item MHC-Short Form, alongside validated measures of anxiety and depression. Five confirmatory factor analytic and bifactor models were developed based on extant research and theory. Results: Overall, a bifactor structure with a “general” positive mental health factor, and three specific factors (“hedonic well-being,” “social well-being,” and “psychological well-being”) fitted the data well and was deemed the superior model. Conclusion: A bifactor model of the MHC-Short Form is recommended comprising a composite score alongside specific factors of hedonic, social, and psychological well-being.

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Leonardo S. Fortes, Maicon R. Albuquerque, Heloiana K.C. Faro, Dalton de Lima-Júnior, Maria E.C. Ferreira, and Sebastião S. Almeida

The study aimed to analyze the effect of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on soccer athletes’ decision making and visual search behavior. It was a single-blind, randomized, and experimental investigation. The 23 soccer athletes were pair-matched according to decision-making skill and then randomized into two groups: a-tDCS and sham. The decision making (during small-sided game and screen task) and visual search behavior were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Only the a-tDCS group reduced response time in the decision-making screen task (p < .05). The a-tDCS group showed a higher number of fixations than sham group (p < .05) during the small-sided game. The a-tDCS group showed a lower duration of fixation than sham group (p < .05) during the small-sided game. Our results indicated that using a-tDCS over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex changed visual search behavior and improved the response time of decision-making skill.

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Camille Sabourin, Stéphanie Turgeon, Laura Martin, Scott Rathwell, Mark Bruner, John Cairney, and Martin Camiré

Although psychological distress has been shown to increase during adolescence, participation in organized activities may have protective effects. The present study aimed to identify whether there is a relationship between high school student-athletes’ breadth of participation in organized activities and psychological distress, using a latent class analysis. Canadian adolescent-athletes (n = 930) in Grades 11 and 12 completed an online survey that measured: (a) high school sport participation, (b) community sport participation, (c) nonsport extracurricular activities participation, and (d) psychological distress. The latent class analysis indicated that a two-class model (i.e., Class 1 = narrower breadth, low distress; Class 2 = wider breadth, moderate distress) was most appropriate. Results indicated that despite the divergent probability of organized activity participation, participants in both classes had a low to moderate probability of presenting elevated levels of psychological distress. However, levels of psychological distress were still higher than other Canadian adolescent populations, suggesting that overscheduling could be of concern. Gender and time (i.e., prior/during COVID-19 pandemic) were significant covariates in the model.

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Becky Breau, Hannah J. Coyle-Asbil, Jess Haines, David W.L. Ma, Lori Ann Vallis, and on behalf of the Guelph Family Health Study

Purpose: Examine the effect of cutpoint selection on physical activity (PA) metrics calculated from young children’s accelerometer data and on the proportion of children meeting PA guidelines. Methods: A total of 262 children (3.6 ± 1.4 years, 126 males) wore ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometers on their right hip for 7 days, 24 hr/day. Ten cutpoint sets were applied to the sample categorized by age, based on populations of the original cutpoint calibration studies using ActiLife software. Resulting sedentary behavior, light PA, moderate to vigorous PA, and total PA were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Proportion of children meeting age-appropriate PA guidelines based on each cutpoint set was assessed using Cochran’s q tests. Results: Children wore the accelerometer for an average of 7.6 ± 1.2 days for an average of 11.9 ± 1.2 hr/day. Significant differences in time spent in each intensity were found across all cutpoints except for sedentary, and total PA for three comparisons (Trost vs. Butte Vertical Axis [VA], Pate vs. Puyau, and Costa VA vs. Evenson) and moderate to vigorous PA for four comparisons (Trost vs. Pate, Trost vs. Pate and Pfeiffer, Pate vs. Pate and Pfeiffer, and van Cauwenberghe vs. Evenson). When examined within age-appropriate groups, all sets of cutpoints resulted in significant differences across all intensities and in the number of children meeting PA guidelines. Conclusion: Choice of cutpoints applied to data from young children significantly affects times calculated for different movement intensities, which in turn impacts the proportion of children meeting guidelines. Thus, comparisons of movement intensities should not be made across studies using different sets of cutpoints.

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Liam P. Pellerine, Derek S. Kimmerly, Jonathon R. Fowles, and Myles W. O’Brien

The Physical Activity Vital Sign (PAVS) is a two-question assessment used to estimate habitual moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity (MVPA). Previous studies have shown active adults cannot estimate the physical activity intensity properly. The initial purpose was to investigate the criterion validity of the PAVS for quantifying habitual MVPA in young adults meeting weekly MVPA guidelines (n = 140; 21 ± 3 years). A previously validated PiezoRx waist-worn accelerometer served as the criterion measure (wear time, 6.7 ± 0.6 days). All participants completed the PAVS once before wearing the PiezoRx. Standardized activity monitor validation procedures were followed. The PAVS (201 ± 142 min/week) underestimated (p < .001) MVPA compared to the PiezoRx (381 ± 155 min/week). To correct for this large error, the sample was divided into calibration model development (n = 70; 21 ± 3 years) and criterion validation (n = 70; 21 ± 3 years) groups. The PAVS score, age, gender, and body mass index outcomes from the development group were used to construct a multiple linear regression model-based calibrated PAVS (cPAVS) equation. In the validation group, the cPAVS was similar (p = .113; 352 ± 23 min/week) compared to accelerometry. Equivalence testing demonstrated the cPAVS, but not the PAVS, was equivalent to the PiezoRx. Despite achieving most statistical criteria, the PAVS and cPAVS still had high degrees of variability, preventing their use on an individual level. Alternative strategies are needed for the PAVS in an active young adult population. These results caution using the PAVS in active young adults and identify a case where obvious variabilities in accuracy conflict with statistically congruent results.

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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Melitta A. McNarry, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Alexander H.K. Montoye, and Jan Christian Brønd

ActiGraph counts are commonly used for characterizing physical activity intensity and energy expenditure and are among the most well-studied accelerometer metrics. Researchers have recently replicated the counts processing method using a mechanical setup, now allowing users to generate counts from raw acceleration data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare ActiGraph-generated counts to open-source counts and assess the impact on free-living physical activity levels derived from cut points, machine learning, and two-regression models. Methods: Children (n = 488, 13.0 ± 1.1 years of age) wore an ActiGraph wGT3X-BT on their right hip for 7 days during waking hours. ActiGraph counts and counts generated from raw acceleration data were compared at the epoch-level and as overall means. Seven methods were used to classify overall and epoch-level activity intensity. Outcomes were compared using weighted kappa, correlations, mean absolute deviation, and two one-sided equivalence testing. Results: All outcomes were statistically equivalent between ActiGraph and open-source counts; weighted kappa was ≥.971 and epoch-level correlations were ≥.992, indicating very high agreement. Bland–Altman plots indicated differences increased with activity intensity, but overall differences between ActiGraph and open-source counts were minimal (e.g., epoch-level mean absolute difference of 23.9 vector magnitude counts per minute). Regardless of classification model, average differences translated to 1.4–2.6 min/day for moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Conclusion: Open-source counts may be used to enhance comparability of future studies, streamline data analysis, and enable researchers to use existing developed models with alternative accelerometer brands. Future studies should verify the performance of open-source counts for other outcomes, like sleep.

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Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer

We examined whether older adults who cycle outdoors regularly have better reactive balance control than noncycling older adults. Sixteen cyclist older adults and 24 age-, sex-, and health-matched controls who did not cycle (noncyclists) were exposed to unannounced perturbations of increased magnitudes in standing. We evaluated the strategies and kinematics employed at each perturbation magnitude. We found that cyclists exhibited a significantly higher stepping threshold, lower probability of stepping at each perturbation magnitude, and lower number of trials in which the participant needed to make a step to retain their balance. Cyclists also tended to recover balance using unloaded leg strategies in the first recovery step rather than a loaded leg strategy; they showed faster swing phase duration in the first recovery step, better controlling the displacement of center of mass than noncyclists. Older adults who cycle regularly outdoors preserve their reactive balance functions, which may reduce fall risks.