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Abraham García-Fariña, Francisco Jiménez Jiménez, and M. Teresa Anguera

Purpose: This study aims to identify socioconstructivist communication patterns used by physical education teachers and their evolution after participating in a training intervention. Method: The authors analyzed 812 units (messages containing constructivist discursive strategies) employed by two physical education teachers in two teaching modules using observational methodology. The data were analyzed by polar coordinate analysis. Results: In the pretraining phase, Teacher 1 presents two discursive patterns with questions–answers–literal incorporation of student-answers into the teachers’ communication, and another formed by praise questions. Teacher 2 generated praise-questions only. In the posttraining phase, Teacher 1 maintains one of the initial patterns and generates another consisting of questions-incorporation of students’ actions into the teacher’s communication. Teacher 2 incorporates two new patterns composed of information demands that are associated with the use of a specific frame of reference, or meta-statement. Discussion: The use of polar coordinate analysis revealed the presence of communication patterns and their evolution. Conclusion: The training intervention has resulted in changes in the communicative patterns of teachers. The custom-made instrument has allowed knowing the discursive strategies

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Julian North, Bettina Callary, Kristen Dieffenbach, Larissa Galatti, Sergio Lara-Bercial, Christine Nash, and Donna O’Connor

This article provides an overview of the context, details, and outcomes of a consultation and review of the International Council for Coaching Excellence’s interactions and engagements with, and service provision to, the international sport coaching research community. The consultation and review were undertaken by the International Council for Coaching Excellence Research Committee (RC). The paper starts with a description of the sport coaching research landscape. It then provides details of the role of the International Council for Coaching Excellence, its Research Fair, and RC. The paper then offers an overview of the formal initiation of the consultation and review at the Global Coach Conference, Japan 2019, as well as a brief overview of the approach used. It then details the consultation findings providing direction for the RC moving forward. The resultant revised RC terms of reference are included as an appendix.

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Kelly L. Simonton, Karen L. Gaudreault, and Caitlin Olive

Purpose: Marginality and isolation have been found to negatively impact physical educators. Despite a significant body of research, few studies have included important personal attributes like teacher emotions. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships of teacher marginality, isolation, and emotions (enjoyment, anger, and anxiety) with intrapersonal job beliefs (turnover intention, perceived accomplishment, and organizational commitment). Methods: Physical educators (N = 227; 51% female) from the United States participated in the study. Results: Experienced teachers reported higher enjoyment, those with less experience reported more anger, and teachers in urban and secondary schools reported higher turnover intention. Hierarchical regression showed emotions add significant variance in relationships with job beliefs, and the interaction between marginality and emotions may help explain teacher perceptions and agency. Discussion/Conclusion: Marginality and teacher emotions, together, impact teacher well-being and job beliefs. Emotions warrant further investigation and may provide mechanisms to understand reactions to marginality and coping.

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Hongying Wang, Bo Shen, and Jin Bo

Purpose: With the belief that situational interest (SI) can be characterized as being triggered and maintained, the authors conducted this study to identify the underlying structure of SI and to develop a new measurement in physical education. Method: There were 558 students from two urban high schools in Shanghai, China, who served as participants. The authors developed the Situational Interest Inventory-Physical Education through three systematic stages. Both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted. Results: An exploratory factor analysis provided preliminary support, with a model comprising three components: triggered SI, maintained SI feeling, and maintained SI value. The three-component model was further corroborated through a confirmatory factor analysis. Its predictive validity was supported with significant correlations to in-class engagement. Conclusion: The findings lend initial evidence to the theoretical mechanism of interest development. Clarifying how SI is related to the mode of teachers’ instruction and learning content may help design effective motivational strategies and nurture long-term individual interest.

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Noah M.A. d’Unienville, Maximillian J. Nelson, Clint R. Bellenger, Henry T. Blake, and Jonathan D. Buckley

Purpose: To prescribe training loads to improve performance, one must know how an athlete is responding to loading. The maximal rate of heart-rate increase (rHRI) during the transition from rest to exercise is linearly related to changes in endurance exercise performance and can be used to infer how athletes are responding to changes in training load. Relationships between rHRI and anaerobic exercise performance have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between rHRI and anaerobic exercise performance. Methods: Eighteen recreational strength and power athletes (13 male and 5 female) were tested on a cycle ergometer for rHRI, 6-second peak power output, anaerobic capacity (30-s average power), and blood lactate concentration prior to (PRE), and 1 (POST1) and 3 (POST3) hours after fatiguing high-intensity interval cycling. Results: Compared with PRE, rHRI was slower at POST1 (effect size [ES] = −0.38, P = .045) but not POST3 (ES = −0.36, P = .11). PPO was not changed at POST1 (ES = −0.12, P = .19) but reduced at POST3 (ES = −0.52, P = .01). Anaerobic capacity was reduced at POST1 (ES = −1.24, P < .001) and POST3 (ES = −0.83, P < .001), and blood lactate concentration was increased at POST1 (ES = 1.73, P < .001) but not at POST3 (ES = 0.75, P = .11). rHRI was positively related to PPO (B = 0.19, P = .03) and anaerobic capacity (B = 0.14, P = .005) and inversely related to blood lactate concentration (B = −0.22, P = .04). Conclusions: rHRI is linearly related to acute changes in anaerobic exercise performance and may indicate how athletes are responding to training to guide the application of training loads.

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Andrew P. Friesen

There has been an implied direct connection between the scholarly literature and applied practice. However, the sport and exercise psychology community is lacking an empirical account of what practitioners believe to have been the most impactful scholarly writings to their applied practice. The purpose of this study was to survey applied practitioners of their perceived most impactful scholarly writings to their professional practice. Surveys were returned from 532 participants solicited from the Association for Applied Sport Psychology membership, who were asked to identify their perceived most impactful book and journal article to their practice. Frequency statistics were calculated and presented for topic, type, title, author(s), year published, and journal. A total of 143 different books and 188 different articles across 84 different journals were reported. Implications for applied practice, teaching sport and exercise psychology, and research are presented.

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Niki Tsangaridou, Mikaela Pieroua, Ermis Kyriakides, and Charalambos Y. Charalambous

Purpose: To examine early childhood teachers’ practices of teaching physical education. Method: Eleven early childhood educators participated in the study. Data were collected using two systematic observation instruments, a modified version of the Task Structure System and the Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness. Three 40-min lessons were observed for each teacher. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The findings showed that most childhood educators more often employed certain generic, rather than content-specific, practices in their physical education lessons. Application, structuring, and questioning were observed in most lessons, while skill demonstration, emphasis on critical elements, and congruent and specific feedback were not frequently observed. Additionally, the generic practices of orientation and modeling were observed in only a few lessons. Conclusions: By investigating and understanding the practices that early childhood teachers employ during physical education lessons, teacher educators can support teachers in ways that provide more meaningful experiences for children.

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Thomas W. Jones, Andrew D. Govus, Alfred Buskqvist, Erik P. Andersson, and Kerry McGawley

Purpose: To provide a descriptive analysis of the warm-up (WU) strategies employed by cross-country skiers prior to distance and sprint competitions at a national championship and to compare the skiers’ planned and executed WUs prior to the respective competitions. Methods: Twenty-one national- and international-level skiers (11 women and 10 men) submitted WU plans prior to the distance and sprint competitions, and after the competitions, reported any deviations from the plans. Skiers used personal monitors to record heart rate (HR) during WU, races, and cooldown. Quantitative statistical analyses were conducted on WU durations, durations in HR-derived intensity zones, and WU loads. Qualitative analyses were conducted on skiers’ WU plans and their reasons for deviating from the plans. Results: Skiers’ planned WUs were similar in content and planned time in HR-derived intensity zones for both the distance and sprint competitions. However, 45% of the women and 20% of the men reported that their WU was not carried out as planned, with reasons detailed as being due to incorrect intensities and running out of time. WU activities including skiing across variable terrain, muscle-potentiating exercises, and heat-maintenance strategies were missing from the skiers’ planned routines. Conclusions: Skiers favored a long, traditional WU approach for both the sprint and distance events, performing less high-intensity and more moderate-intensity exercise during their WUs than planned. In addition, elements likely relevant to successful performance in cross-country skiing were missing from WU plans.

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Carolina Casado-Robles, Jesús Viciana, Santiago Guijarro-Romero, and Daniel Mayorga-Vega

Purpose: To examine the effect of two physical education–based alternated teaching units on students’ environmental knowledge for practicing out-of-school physical activity (PA), perceived autonomy support, self-determined and controlled motivation toward PA, intention to be physically active, self-reported and objective PA levels, and sedentary behavior. Method: A sample of 179 students (94 females) aged 13–15 years old was cluster randomly assigned to the innovative group (two alternated teaching units for practicing PA, with one lesson inside and one outside the school grounds) or the traditional group (a teaching unit for practicing PA, solely inside the school center). Results: The alternated teaching units improved students’ knowledge of their environment for practicing PA, perceived autonomy, autonomous motivation, intention to be physically active, and self-reported PA during the whole week (p < .05). Discussion/Conclusion: The innovative program improved students’ knowledge about their environment for practicing PA and self-reported PA but did not improve objectively measured PA levels.