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Jonathan Kingsley, Nyssa Hadgraft, Neville Owen, Takemi Sugiyama, David W. Dunstan, and Manoj Chandrabose

This study investigates the associations of vigorous-intensity gardening time with cardiometabolic health risk markers. This cross-sectional study (AusDiab) analyzed 2011–2012 data of 3,664 adults (55% women, mean [range], age = 59.3 [34–94] years) in Australia. Multiple linear regression models examined associations of time spent participating in vigorous gardening (0, <150 min/week, ≥150 min/week) with a clustered cardiometabolic risk (CMR) score and its components, for the whole sample and stratified by age and gender. Of participants, 61% did no vigorous gardening, 23% reported <150 min/week, and 16% reported ≥150 min/week. In the whole sample, spending ≥150 min/week in vigorous gardening was associated with lower CMR (lower CMR score, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides) compared with no vigorous gardening. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations were almost exclusively observed for older adults and women. These findings suggest the public health potential of vigorous-intensity gardening in reducing CMR.

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Tsz Lun (Alan) Chu, Bailey Sommerfeld, and Tao Zhang

Building on recent research examining athlete burnout trajectories, this study implemented the developmental model of sport participation to compare emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation between age groups (specializing [aged 13–15 years] vs. investment [aged 16–18 years]) and gender (boys vs. girls) among U.S. high school athletes. Participants were 367 high school athletes (M = 15.53; 212 males; 186 specializing) across various individual and team sports who completed a survey assessing their demographic information, sport backgrounds, and burnout perceptions. A 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for training hours, showed greater emotional and physical exhaustion and sport devaluation in the investment than the specializing group, but no developmental differences in reduced sense of accomplishment. Contrary to our hypothesis, no gender or interaction effects were found. Findings inform interventions and future research that address the role of developmental stages and gender in athlete burnout.

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Katariina Rahikainen and Kim Toffoletti

Drawing on data from a qualitative study of sponsored and professional female climbers, this article offers a timely examination of the digital labor undertaken by women seeking to forge identities and livelihoods in sport. Female climbers are increasingly turning to social media to generate visibility and sponsorship opportunities in response to the changing social and commercial imperatives of sport, yet the perspective of participants is lacking in existing academic research. The theoretical framework of “athletic labor of femininity” is deployed to explore sportswomen’s decision making when producing social media content. This study departs from previous investigations by considering the sociotechnical aspects of platform algorithms in female climbers’ efforts to remain visible online, and attempts to avoid controversy that can deter followers.

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Denver M.Y. Brown, Patrick G. McPhee, Matthew Y. Kwan, and Brian W. Timmons

Background: Research has established beneficial associations between 24-hour movement guideline adherence and several health outcomes in typically developing (TD) children, but these relationships are poorly understood in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). This study examined (1) 24-hour movement guideline adherence, (2) the influence of disability severity, and (3) associations between guideline adherence and health outcomes of TD children and children with NDD. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2018 and 2019 cycles of the US National Survey of Children’s Health. Parental/caregiver reports of movement behaviors (physical activity, screen time, and sleep), disability severity (limitations to daily activities), and health outcomes (general health status, anxiety, and depression) were provided for 8554 children with NDD and 19,669 TD children aged 6–17 years. Results: Children with NDD had significantly lower odds of meeting each movement behavior guideline compared to TD children; these effects were most pronounced for those who experienced consistent limitations to daily activities. Meeting at least 2 guidelines significantly lowered the odds for anxiety and depression, and increased the odds for better general health for children with NDD. Discussion: These findings suggest that degree of disability severity has a strong influence on adherence to 24-hour movement guidelines among children with NDD.

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Emma S. Cowley, Alyssa A. Olenick, Kelly L. McNulty, and Emma Z. Ross

This study aimed to conduct an updated exploration of the ratio of male and female participants in sport and exercise science research. Publications involving humans were examined from The European Journal of Sports Science, Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, The Journal of Sport Science & Medicine, The Journal of Physiology, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, and The British Journal of Sports Medicine , 2014–2020. The total number of participants, the number of male and female participants, the title, and the topic, were recorded for each publication. Data were expressed in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square analyses were used to assess the differences in frequencies in each of the journals. About 5,261 publications and 12,511,386 participants were included in the analyses. Sixty-three percentage of publications included both males and females, 31% included males only, and 6% included females only (p < .0001). When analyzing participants included in all journals, a total of 8,253,236 (66%) were male and 4,254,445 (34%) were female (p < .0001). Females remain significantly underrepresented within sport and exercise science research. Therefore, at present most conclusions made from sport and exercise science research might only be applicable to one sex. As such, researchers and practitioners should be aware of the ongoing sex data gap within the current literature, and future research should address this.

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Aaron S. Fox, Reed Ferber, and Jason Bonacci

Altered gait variability occurs in those with patellofemoral pain and may be relevant to pain progression. We examined gait kinematic and coordination variability between individuals with acute and chronic patellofemoral pain and healthy controls. Eighty-three patellofemoral pain runners (37 men and 46 women) and 142 healthy controls (52 men and 90 women) ran on a treadmill while 3-dimensional lower limb kinematic data were collected. Patellofemoral pain runners were split into acute (n = 22) and chronic (n = 61) subgroups based on pain duration (< and ≥3 mo, respectively). Approximate entropy assessed continuous hip, knee, and ankle kinematic variability. Vector coding calculated coordination variability for select joint couplings. Variability measures were compared between groups using 1-way analysis of variance and post hoc comparisons with Cohen d effect sizes. The chronic patellofemoral pain subgroup displayed higher frontal plane knee kinematic variability compared with controls (P = .0004, d = 0.550). No statistically significant effects for any coordination variability couplings were identified. Minimal differences in gait variability were detected between those with acute and chronic patellofemoral pain and healthy controls.

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Dean R. Watson, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan

Attitudes toward help-seeking will contribute to whether athletes ask for support for performance and mental health issues when needed. While research outside of sport has found perfectionism is related to negative attitudes toward help-seeking, no studies have examined the relationship in sport. The authors provided the first test of whether perfectionism predicted attitudes toward both sport psychology support and mental health support. One hundred and sixty-six collegiate athletes completed measures of perfectionism and attitudes toward sport psychology support and mental health support. Multiple regression analyses revealed that perfectionistic concerns positively predicted closedness and stigma toward sport psychology support and mental health support, and negatively predicted help-seeking toward mental health support. However, perfectionistic strivings negatively predicted stigma toward sport psychology support and mental health support, and positively predicted confidence in sport psychology support and help-seeking toward mental health support. Athletes higher in perfectionistic concerns are less likely to seek support when required.

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Rhys J. Thurston, Danielle M. Alexander, and Mathieu Michaud

Learning disabilities and neurodevelopmental disorders are the most prevalent disabilities that affect learning. This paper will provide practical recommendations and observations for coaching athletes with three common learning disabilities (dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia) and two neurodevelopmental disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder). Adapted from the literature and in conjunction with previous experiences, the authors provided a range of recommendations for coaches to consider implementing within their practices. The recommendations place an emphasis on the knowledge, strategies, and behaviors of the coach and their role in providing an inclusive, safe, and accessible space for athletes—with or without disabilities—rather than problematizing the disability or the person. Coaches are encouraged to consider their coaching environment (i.e., structure, physical elements, equipment), communication styles (i.e., language, delivery, feedback), and behaviors (e.g., frequent check-ins, review of material). Furthermore, coaches are encouraged to critically reflect on their preconceived biases, assumptions, and experiences with disability and how these play a role in influencing their coaching practices.Considering the prevalence of people with learning disabilities or neurodevelopmental disorders, it is essential for coaches to have access to disability-specific information while remaining cognizant of the needs of the individual when providing an inclusive environment for all.