This study aims to increase the effective use of in-stadium sponsor message placement by analyzing the influence of various run-of-play characteristics on television viewers’ visual attention allocation. Sports broadcasts constitute one potential platform for sponsors to place personalized messages. However, literature still questions the effectiveness of in-stadium sponsor messages, and the influence of game-related factors on viewers’ visual attention has received little consideration in this context. In addition, researchers call for more reliable and realistic measures concerning the effective evaluation of sponsorship-linked marketing. Therefore, this study uses real-time adaptions (eye-tracking, in-play betting odds, etc.) utilizing live soccer broadcasts as one of the first. Data were analyzed second by second (n = 100,298) using generalized linear mixed models. Results indicate significant associations of several run-of-play characteristics with viewers’ visual attention to sponsor messages depending on the characteristic, the games’ degree of suspense, and playing time. Findings provide hands-on advice for practitioners to enhance sponsor message placement during live broadcasts.
Elisa Herold and Christoph Breuer
Don Vinson, Anita Navin, Alison Lamont, Jennifer Turnnidge, and Jean Côté
The personal assets framework offers a lens to better understand the relationship between leadership in sport environments and the resultant (athlete) developmental outcomes. This investigation aimed to explore how leadership behaviors and the broader environment of a Super League netball club represented an effective context for athletes to flourish by exploring the interrelations between the personal assets framework’s dynamic elements, namely (a) quality social dynamics, (b) appropriate settings, and (c) personal engagement in activities. Twenty-eight stakeholders were interviewed either individually or in small groups. The results revealed that the environment constructed was shaped by many interrelated mechanisms, and all stakeholders influenced how the dynamic elements intersected with one another. Key leadership behaviors driving the positive environment of the club were related to individualization and generating perceptions of value. The stakeholders’ desire to understand the relationship between their individual contribution and Super League netball was also crucial.
Sam C. Ehrlich, Joe Sabin, and Neal C. Ternes
With the arrival of name, image, and likeness (NIL), the college sports labor market has distinctly taken on similar characteristics to the gig economy, with athletes able to earn extra compensation through external NIL-based independent contractor “gigs.” But with this comparison comes comparable issues, and scholarship and litigation examining and challenging gig economy structures have identified several legal and ethical concerns both individual to each worker and more broadly affecting labor markets. Building off this literature, we conceptualize the NIL phenomenon within the gig economy space, exploring the legal and ethical concerns that have plagued companies like Uber and applying those same concerns to the brave new world of NIL-fueled college sports. We not only find similar issues in college sports but also find even deeper concerns based on new and existing challenges unique to the novel space of college sports, particularly given the increased proliferation of NIL collectives.
Sugalya Amatachaya, Patcharawan Suwannarat, Apassanan Wiyanad, Pakwipa Chokphukia, Thanat Sooknuan, and Pipatana Amatachaya
Thoracic hyperkyphosis could affect mobility and independence of older adults. However, there was no clear evidence on the use of the seventh cervical vertebra wall distance (C7WD), a practical measure for thoracic hyperkyphosis, to indicate mobility deficits relating to independence of these individuals. This study explored the ability of C7WD to determine mobility impairments in 104 older adults. Participants (average age of 74.1 ± 7.4 years) with various degree of thoracic kyphosis were cross-sectionally measured for their C7WD, mobility, and Cobb angle. The findings indicate that participants with thoracic hyperkyphosis (Cobb angle = 46.1 ± 5.2°) had significantly poorer mobility than those without thoracic hyperkyphosis (Cobb angle = 32.8 ± 5.9°, p < .05). A C7WD of ≥7.8 cm could indicate mobility deficits of the participants (sensitivity = 71%–92%, specificity = 75%–94%, and area under the curve >0.80). The findings confirm the ability of C7WD that could be clinically measured using rulers to indicate mobility deficits of older adults.
Wenjing Zhao, Shigekazu Ukawa, Sachiko Sasaki, Emiko Okada, Tomoko Kishi, Kastunori Kondo, and Akiko Tamakoshi
Our study aimed to demonstrate the association between physical activity (PA) and frailty incidence among Japanese community-dwelling older adults with a narrow age range of 70–74 years. This study included 485 participants from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Frailty was assessed at baseline and 3 years later by using the Kaigo-Yobo Checklist. PA was assessed using the short-term International PA Questionnaire at baseline. Logistic regression was performed to calculate the odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for potential confounders. The associations of frailty scores with both PA volume and daily walking time presented a U-shaped curve, albeit only the latter was statistically significant. After adjusting for potential confounders, walking for 0.5–1 hr/day displayed a greater association with decreased frailty risk than higher levels of daily walking time. Further study is needed to cumulate the evidence that moderate PA levels may delay frailty incidence and improve the aging process.
Athletes face unique mental health stressors, including internal/external pressure, time displacement, and physical injury. In addition, athletes who experience mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety reference the role of social factors—specifically stigma—as barriers to mental health. The present study draws on 37 testimonials from The Players’ Tribune in which athletes disclosed mental illness. A theoretical thematic analysis pinpointed themes within the testimonials of athletes who elucidated and refuted myths concerning mental health in sport. Through disclosure, the athletes challenged stigma by protesting myths that discourage help-seeking behavior in sport. The analysis identified six themes in the myths concerning (a) professional success, (b) strength, (c) identity, (d) the sports story treatment of mental health, (e) sport as escape, and (f) isolation. Implications are discussed in relation to changing social norms in sport.
Vitor Leandro da Silva Profeta and Claisyellen Silva Campos
Different individuals learn different solutions to the same perceptual-motor task regardless of the fact that they may undergo the same practice conditions. In the current study, we characterized individual solutions to a perceptual-motor task. Eighteen self-declared right-handed participants were requested to intercept a moving target controlling a virtual ball using a computer mouse. Target speed varied across trials. Participants visited the lab 2 days in a row. They practiced 250 trials on Day 1 and 50 trials on Day 2. We assessed participants’ preferred speed and maximum speed on both days. We combined a qualitative description of solutions on the task space and the quantitative growth curve analysis to address individual differences. Results indicated an overall trend to increase the ball release speed to handle the task constraints. Moreover, the local shape of the solution manifold constrained individuals’ solutions. Contrary to our expectations, neither individual preferred speed nor individual maximum speed improved model fit.
Julia Hussien, Lauren Gignac, Lauren Shearer, and Diane M. Ste-Marie
Although researchers have highlighted the benefits of adopting an external focus of attention for rehabilitation, studies have consistently revealed low external focus use by physiotherapists. Consequently, the purpose of this research was to explore factors influencing physiotherapists’ focus of attention use and to gain insight into the barriers, and potential solutions, related to effective external focus use. Eight physiotherapists, working with musculoskeletal rehabilitation clients, first completed the Therapists’ Perceptions of Motor Learning Principles Questionnaire and then participated in virtual one-on-one interviews. The interviews followed a semistructured interview guide and were analyzed using a total quality framework approach to qualitative content analysis. Data showed that physiotherapists’ focus of attention use was influenced by physiotherapist, client, and task characteristics/experiences, as well as focus of attention statement provision strategies. Furthermore, the main barriers discussed related to educational experiences, reinforcement of internal focus of attention statement use and aspects related to research. Solutions presented to these barriers included the incorporation of focus of attention content into both the Canadian physiotherapy curriculum and continued education. Overall, these results advance our knowledge of factors underlying physiotherapists’ focus of attention use and barriers that must be overcome to successfully translate the focus of attention research into physiotherapy.
Julia Hussien, Lauren Gignac, Lauren Shearer, and Diane M. Ste-Marie
Although researchers have consistently demonstrated the potential benefit of an external focus of attention for rehabilitation, research has shown that this finding has yet to be translated into Canadian physiotherapy. Further, specific barriers to external focus use have been reported by Canadian physiotherapists, and as a solution toward increasing physiotherapists’ use of external focus, these same physiotherapists recommended the development of an educational workshop on focus of attention. Considering this, described herein is the process of developing such a workshop, which involved (a) gathering input from physiotherapists concerning content and format via one-on-one interviews and (b) engaging in discussion about content with focus of attention researchers. Analysis of the interview data featured key content for the workshop, the types of activities to include, and a recommended sequencing for the activities: specifically, sharing didactic information on focus of attention research, then providing instruction and demonstration of external focus use, and finally, finishing with opportunities for generating and delivering external focus statements. This input, along with that of the researchers, led to the development of a two-component focus of attention workshop, which includes an asynchronous component, featuring seven self-directed learning modules and a synchronous component, which consists of a virtual group session.
Yeongho Hwang, Madison Boyd, Cody Davenport, and Valerie Carson
Background: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of factors from multiple social-ecological levels in explaining outdoor play changes in childcare centers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In Alberta, Canada, licensed childcare center directors (n = 160) completed an online questionnaire. For outcomes, changes in the frequency and duration of outdoor play in childcare centers during COVID-19 compared to before COVID-19 were measured. For exposures, center demographic, director, parental, social, environmental, and policy-level factors were measured. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted separately for winter (December–March) and nonwinter months (April–November). Results: In most instances, factors at each social-ecological level explained a statistically significant amount of unique variance in changes in outdoor play in childcare centers during COVID-19. Full models accounted for more than 26% of the variance in the outcomes. Changes in parental interest in outdoor play was the most consistent correlate of changes in the frequency and duration of outdoor play in both winter and nonwinter months during COVID-19. In terms of changes in the duration of outdoor play, social support from the provincial government, health authority, and licensing, and changes in the number of play areas in licensed outdoor play spaces were also consistent correlates in both winter and nonwinter months during COVID-19. Conclusions: Factors from multiple social-ecological levels uniquely contributed to changes in outdoor play in childcare centers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings can help inform interventions and public health initiatives related to outdoor play in childcare centers during and after the ongoing pandemic.