Person-centered investigations of athlete burnout have utility to unearth novel information about this developmental experience within the social environment of competitive sport. Guided by extant theory, conceptually proposed developmental patterns of athlete burnout were examined across a season as expressed in profiles of emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced accomplishment, and sport devaluation perceptions. Athlete social perceptions were also explored as predictors of profile membership. Collegiate athletes (N = 129) completed established assessments of study variables at four in-season time points. Latent profile analysis revealed profiles characterized by athletes experiencing the three burnout dimensions similarly at any given time point, with the notable exception of exhaustion being more frequently experienced in some profiles. Social support perceptions predicted profile membership with moderate success. Trends in profile stability provide some support for consideration of exhaustion-driven burnout experiences. Results shed light on the theoretical pathways of burnout development and inform continued longitudinal burnout research efforts.
J.D. DeFreese and Alan L. Smith
Vagner D.O. Tavares, Kell G. da Costa, Daniel A.R. Cabral, Maria L.M. Rego, Menna Price, and Eduardo B. Fontes
Impaired inhibitory control has been shown in individuals with substance use disorder (SUD). Cardiorespiratory fitness has been described as a potential factor to improve inhibitory control; however, the benefits in individuals with SUD are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness with general and drug-specific inhibitory control in individuals with SUD. Sixty-two male participants under treatment for SUD performed a general and drug-specific inhibitory control test (go/no-go) and a cardiorespiratory fitness test. Cardiorespiratory fitness, age, and years of drug use were inversely associated with reaction time for both general and drug-specific inhibitory control. In addition, the regression models showed that cardiorespiratory fitness predicts general and drug-specific inhibitory control adjusted for age and time of drug use. However, cardiorespiratory fitness predicts equally both general and drug-specific inhibitory control. These findings suggest that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness could provide benefits in the inhibitory function of individuals with SUD.
Clara Teixidor-Batlle, Carles Ventura Vall-llovera, Justine J. Reel, and Ana Andrés
The study purpose was to validate the psychometric properties of a Spanish-language version of the weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes. The weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes assesses risk factors associated with sport-specific weight pressures from coaches, peers, and team uniform. The scale was back translated and administered to 407 Spanish male college athletes. The sample was randomly split to perform the exploratory and confirmatory analysis. After item analysis, three items were removed. The exploratory analysis identified two latent constructs (referring to coaches and teammates pressures, and pressures due to uniform), and the confirmatory analysis produced a two-factor model (comparative fit indexSB = .946, Tucker–Lewis indexSB = .925, root mean square of approximationSB = .071, standardized root mean square residualSB = .068). The overall scale showed adequate internal consistency (α = .82) and demonstrated adequate convergent validity with the other questionnaires. The Spanish-language version of the weight pressures in sport scale for male athletes can be used to measure weight-related pressures among male athletes in sport psychology and clinical settings.
Jessica Ross and Peter D. MacIntyre
Flow is a desirable state of consciousness and absorption in an optimally challenging activity. Prior research has investigated individual differences in flow. The present study investigates flow by contrasting physical versus mental activities, using a mixed-methods, sequential explanatory design. The sample from the quantitative phase included 205 undergraduate university students assessed on measures of personality, difficulties in emotion regulation, and flow. The big-five traits intellect and conscientiousness, as well as the emotion regulation subscale “lack of emotional clarity” predicted flow during mental activities, but unexpectedly no variables significantly predicted physical flow activities. The second phase used semi-structured interviews with 10 participants. Analyses of the interviews helped further explain the statistical findings, revealing four main themes: role of stress, source of guilt, presence of others, and satisfaction and fulfillment. We conclude that flow is especially relevant in physical activities which have advantages over mental activities in opportunities to experience flow.
Luke Wilkins, Jen Sweeney, Zoella Zaborski, Carl Nelson, Simon Tweddle, Eldre Beukes, and Peter Allen
The purpose of the present study was to address perceptions towards Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in soccer. Twenty-four male, elite academy soccer players (M age = 20.04) completed a custom-made questionnaire which included education on CBT. The results found that: i) initially, only 8% of players had heard of CBT whilst only 4% of players knew what CBT was, ii) players strongly agreed that CBT should be offered to all players, iii) not knowing how/where to seek help was identified as the main barrier to CBT, iv) players indicated a preference for one-to-one and face-to-face CBT, as opposed to small-group or online-CBT, and v) players perceived they would receive most support from family/friends, and least support from teammates, if they were to undertake CBT. These findings demonstrate that whilst initial awareness and knowledge of CBT is low, general perceptions towards CBT are positive once athletes are educated on the area.
Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Kristin N. Wood, Amanda J. Wambach, Andrew C. White, and Victor J. Rubio
The purpose of this study was to explore religiosity/spirituality (R/S) in coping with sport injuries, based on predictions of the integrated model of psychological response to the sport injury and rehabilitation process. A concurrent mixed methods design framed an online survey incorporating quantitative measures of R/S identification and commitment, health locus of control for sport injury, and ways of coping with sport injury, as well as qualitative open-ended questions about mechanisms through which R/S affected and was affected by coping with sport injuries. Participants included 49 physically active adults who experienced sport injuries, with 37 identifying as R/S. Quantitative findings among R/S participants showed religious commitment was a predictor of God health locus of control and positive religious coping. Quantitative results relative to differences between R/S and no-R/S participants showed that those self-identified as R/S relied on a God health locus of control and utilized active coping more so than did those self-identified as no-R/S, whereas no-R/S participants relied more than did R/S participants on an internal health locus of control. Thematic analyses exploring qualitative data revealed three main themes characterizing mechanisms through which R/S affected and was affected by coping with sport injuries: positive, negative, and no R/S coping strategies and effects. Findings support the predictions of the integrated model of psychological response to the sport injury and rehabilitation process and provide evidence-bases for clinical and counseling interventions that reflect cultural competence in accommodating patient or client R/S during recovery from sport injury.
Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, Jeffrey J. Milroy, and Christine M. Baugh
Purpose: Assess whether athletes with a prior concussion diagnosis are more likely to continue play with a possible concussion. Additionally, explore whether reasons for concussion under-reporting are different among athletes with a prior concussion when compared to other athletes. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 328 collegiate athletes. Results: Athletes with a prior concussion diagnosis had significantly greater relative risk of continuing play while symptomatic of a possible concussion during their most recent season compared to athletes without prior concussion diagnosis. Significant differences exist in the reasons that athletes provided for not reporting by history of concussion. Conclusions: Findings suggest that learning may have occurred as a result of the prior diagnosis; however, this learning did not appear to result in safer reporting behavior. Additional research is necessary to clarify why athletes who have been previously diagnosed with a concussion are more likely to continue playing while experiencing concussion symptoms.
Anne Holding, Jo-Annie Fortin, Joëlle Carpentier, Nora Hope, and Richard Koestner
Retirement from competitive sports significantly influences former athletes’ well-being. We propose that disengaging from the former athletic career is a crucial factor in retired athletes’ adaptation. Using the theoretical framework of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) we propose that sport motivation at the career peak and motivation for retirement are important determinants of athletes’ disengagement progress from a terminated athletic career. We also seek to examine how motivation for retirement and disengagement progress predict retired athletes’ well-being. Using a mixed-retrospective/prospective longitudinal design we followed 158 government-supported elite athletes who had recently retired from an athletic career. In two online surveys administered 1.5 years apart, retired athletes reported on motivation, disengagement, and well-being. Results suggested that SDT motivation factors are important predictors for elite athletes career disengagement and well-being in retirement. The clinical implications of these findings for athletic career transition and support programs are discussed.
Leonardo Ruiz, Judy L. Van Raalte, Thaddeus France, and Al Petitpas
More than 1,400 Latin American professional baseball players, age 16-21, are employed by 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) academies in the Dominican Republic. The popular press has highlighted scandals related to professional youth baseball player recruitment, selection, and exploitation in the academies, but little attention has been given to the academy experiences of youth baseball players from the perspective of the players themselves. For this research, 11 professional baseball players residing at an MLB Academy in the Dominican Republic participated in semi-structured interviews. Players described their transitions into the baseball academy system, their experiences in the academy, and their perceptions and expectations upon leaving or being released from the academy. Themes that emerged from the data included athletes’ hopes and dreams, stress, faith, and career transitions. Clinical implications of these findings for sport psychology practitioners are discussed.