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Justin A. Haegele, Xihe Zhu, Sean Healy, and Freda Patterson

Background: The purposes of this study were to examine the proportions of youth receiving special education services in the United States who individually and jointly met physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration guidelines, and to examine the impact of meeting none, one, two, and three of the guidelines on overweight and obesity. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis utilized data from the 2016 to 2017 National Survey for Children’s Health data set on 3582 youth aged 10–17 years who received special education services. The frequency of the participants’ compliance with the 24-hour movement guidelines and body weight status (based on the age- and sex-specific percentile cutoffs) were estimated. Meeting guidelines was defined as: 9–11 hours/night (5–13 y) or 8–10 hours/night (14–17 y) of sleep, ≤120 minutes per day of screen time, and ≥60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the impact of meeting none, one, two, or three guidelines on body weight status, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Overall, 8.1% of youth met all three guidelines, 42.0% met two guidelines, 38.0% met one guideline, and 11.9% did not meet any guideline. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with an approximately 50% decreased likelihood of overweight than meeting no guideline, or sleep or screen time guidelines independently. Conclusions: This study extends the 24-hour movement framework to children receiving special education services and should prompt the continued study of its utility for understanding health disparities experienced by this population.

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Hayley E. Christian, Leanne Lester, Mohamed K. Al Marzooqi, Stewart G. Trost, and Alana Papageorgiou

Background: Social emotional development is imperative to young children’s long-term psychological and physical health. Physical activity (PA) may be important for young children’s social emotional development. The association between preschooler PA duration and intensity and social emotional development was investigated. Methods: Data from six hundred and fifty-one 2- to 4-year-olds in the Play Spaces and Environments for Children’s Physical Activity (PLAYCE) study were analyzed. PA was measured using ActiGraph-GT3X accelerometers worn over 7 days. Social emotional development was measured using the parent-completed Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression models examined the association between PA duration and intensity and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire subscales. Results: Preschoolers did 158.2 (SD = 40.2) minutes per day of PA with 27% meeting the Australian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years. There was a 1.74 point decrease in the total Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire score for each additional hour of moderate-intensity PA per day (P < .05). Similar significant associations were found across all domains of social emotional development except hyperactivity, and were consistent across different intensities of light, moderate, and vigorous PA. Conclusions: These findings highlight the potential importance of PA, especially moderate-intensity play-based PA, for different aspects of preschool children’s social emotional development. Longitudinal and intervention research is required to confirm whether promoting PA in the early years provides developmental benefit.

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Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Clarice Martins, Michael Duncan, Maria João Lagoa, Susana Vale, and Jorge Mota

Background: To examine the associations between motor competence (MC), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and body mass index (BMI) changes over 1 year in preschoolers. Methods: Fifty-four preschoolers (24 girls; 42.4%) aged 4–5 years old from the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal comprised the sample. Height, body mass, and BMI were calculated. MC was assessed according to the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. MVPA was measured by accelerometry. For each participant, changes in MVPA, MC, and BMI over a year were computed. Different levels of MC were calculated; and then data were analyzed. Results: The MVPA increased over time in all levels of MC in the follow-up. The BMI decreased over time for all levels in follow-up (P = .001). The preschoolers classified as at a high level of MC were more likely to spend more time in MVPA (in minutes) than their counterparts with low MC in follow-up. Multiple linear regression analyses, adjusted by sex and age, were fit to predict Δ% MC by Δ% MVPA and Δ% BMI. The Δ% MC was positively associated with Δ% MVPA. Conclusion: Increases in MC were positively associated with MVPA. Higher performance in MC increases due to time spent in MVPA. Improvement of MC in young children has potentially relevant policy implications related to MVPA and public health.

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Alicia Fillon, Pauline Genin, Benjamin Larras, Jeremy Vanhelst, Maxime Luiggi, Salome Aubert, Charlotte Verdot, Olivier Rey, Lena Lhuisset, Julien Bois, Nicole Fearnbach, Martine Duclos, and David Thivel

Background: There is an alarming and constant worldwide progression of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents. The present paper summarizes findings from France’s 2020 Report Card on physical activity for children and youth, comparing its results to its 2 previous editions (2016 and 2018). Methods: France’s 2020 Report Card follows the standardized methodology established by the Active Healthy Kids Global Matrix, grading 10 common physical activity indicators using the best available evidence. The grades were informed by national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, government and nongovernment reports, and online information. Results: The expert panel awarded the following grades: Overall Physical Activity: D; Organized Sport Participation and Physical Activity: C−; Active Play: INC; Active Transportation: C−; Sedentary Behaviors: D−; Family and Peers: D−; Physical Fitness: D; School: B−; Community and the Built Environment: F; Government: C. Conclusions: This 2020 edition of France’s Report Card again highlights the alarming levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among French children and adolescents, calling for the development of effective national action. It also draws attention to the particular deleterious effects of the COVID-19 confinement on youth’s movement behaviors, which significantly worsened the situation.

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Nicole Cramer, Miriam J. Haviland, Chuan Zhou, and Jason A. Mendoza

Background: A walking school bus (WSB) consists of students and adults walking to and from school and promotes active commuting to school. Self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectations (OE) are behavioral constructs associated with active commuting to school. The authors sought to assess the impact of a WSB program on child SE, and parent SE, and OE. Methods: The authors conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of a WSB intervention from 2012 to 2016 among 22 elementary schools serving racially diverse, low-income populations in Houston, TX and Seattle, WA. Surveys collected data from third- to fifth-grade students and their parents, (n = 418) child-parent dyads, before school randomization and at the school year’s end. Child surveys included 16 SE items, while parent surveys included 15 SE items and 14 OE items. Scores were averaged from responses ranging from 1 to 3. The authors compared changes in SE and OE between groups over time and accounted for clustering using linear mixed-effects models. Results: The intervention group had increases in child SE of 0.12 points (P = .03), parent SE of 0.11 points (P = .048), and parent OE of 0.09 points (P = .02) compared to controls over time. Conclusions: As hypothesized, the WSB improved child SE, parent SE, and parent OE related to active commuting to school.

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Katie R. Hosteng, Jacob E. Simmering, Linnea A. Polgreen, James F. Cremer, Alberto M. Segre, Shelby L. Francis, Kara M. Whitaker, Philip M. Polgreen, and Lucas J. Carr

Background: Regular physical activity is crucial for healthy aging, but older adults are the least active age group. This study explored the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a multilevel mHealth intervention for increasing physical activity of older adults living in a retirement community. Methods: Participants included 54 older adults (mean age = 81.2 y, 77.8% female, 98.1% white) living in a retirement community. Participants received a Fitbit Zip and access to a multilevel mHealth physical activity intervention (MapTrek Residential) for 8 weeks. Physical activity (in steps per day) and intervention compliance (days worn) were measured objectively with the Fitbit for 12 weeks (8-wk intervention plus 4-wk follow-up). Psychosocial outcomes (social support, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations) were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Acceptability outcomes were assessed with an open-ended process evaluation survey and focus groups. Descriptive statistics and linear mixed models were used to examine intervention effects. Results: Participants increased daily steps from 5438 steps per day at baseline (95% CI, 4620 to 6256) to 6201 steps per day (95% CI, 5359 to 7042) at week 8 (P < .0001) but this was not maintained at 12 weeks (P = .92). Conclusions: Our multilevel mHealth physical activity intervention was effective for increasing physical activity older adults over 8 weeks. Additional research focused on maintaining physical activity gains with this approach is warranted.

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I Putu Adiartha Griadhi, I Putu Gede Adiatmika, and I Ketut Tirtayasa

Background: Légong dance is a famous Balinese dance with a dynamic movement. It potentially becomes an exercise of choice to improve young girls’ physical fitness. This study aimed to evaluate légong dance training’s effect on physical fitness compared with aerobic training. Methods: Forty young girls were randomly assigned to the aerobic training (AG) and lègong dance (DG) group and trained with jogging and lègong dancing at moderate-intensity aerobic training. Each was carried out for 30 minutes, 3 times a week, for 6 weeks. Result: Aerobic capacity (estimated maximal oxygen consumption) improved significantly in AG and DG, with a mean difference and Cohen d effect size of 0.36 mL/kg/min and 0.68. The back- and leg-muscle strength increased significantly in DG and AG, with a mean difference of 5.55 kg and 6.67 kg, and an effect size of 0.69 and 0.77. Balance improved significantly in DG and AG, with a mean difference of 21.26 seconds and an effect size of 1.05. All significant values are reported at P < .05. There were no significant improvements in arm muscle strength, body fat percentage, and flexibility in either group (P > .05). Conclusion: Lègong dance training results in significant physical fitness improvement and better results than aerobic training.

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Fatemeh Abbasi, Zeinab Khademi, Rasoul Eslami, and Alireza Milajerdi

Background: Despite several studies on the effects of exercise training on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with breast cancer, no earlier study has systematically summarized their findings. Current systematic review and meta-analysis have been done on earlier clinical trials in this topic. Methods: Relevant studies published up to May 2020 were searched through PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar using predefined keywords. Studies that examined the effect of exercise training on serum glucose and lipid profiles in adult women with breast cancer were included. Results: A total of 16 studies were included. Combining 10 effect sizes, exercise training had no significant influence on serum fasting plasma glucose concentrations (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 4.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], −4.65 to 14.29). However, it resulted in significant reduction of serum insulin (WMD = −2.37; 95% CI, −3.57 to −1.16) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (WMD = −0.71; 95% CI, −1.27 to −0.15) in 14 and 8 studies, respectively. Pooling 6 effect sizes, exercise training did not change serum total cholesterol (WMD = −11.99; 95% CI, −32.42 to 8.45), low-density lipoprotein (WMD = −3.21; 95% CI, −10.45 to 4.04), high-density lipoprotein (WMD = 4.13; 95% CI, −6.20 to 14.46), and triglyceride (WMD = −23.34; 95% CI, −66.96 to 20.29) concentrations. Subgroup analyses showed beneficial effects of exercise training on outcomes of interest among studies with higher methodological quality. Conclusion: Current meta-analysis demonstrated significant reductions in serum levels of insulin and insulin resistance following exercise training. However, exercise training had no significant effect on serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Further high-quality studies are needed to shed light on this issue.

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Thaynã Alves Bezerra, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Anastácio Neco de Souza Filho, Cain Craig Truman Clark, Jorge Augusto Pinto Silva Mota, Michael Joseph Duncan, and Clarice Maria de Lucena Martins

Background: The relationship between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and fundamental motor skill (FMS) is inconsistent in early childhood, due to its complex and nonlinear characteristics. This study aimed to analyze the nonlinear relationships between MVPA, FMS, body mass index (BMI), sex, and age in preschoolers. Methods: This cross-sectional study with preschoolers (n = 204; 4.0 [0.8] y old; 99 boys), provided objective physical activity data, FMS assessments, and BMI. The associations between MVPA, FMS, BMI, sex, and age were explored using the network analysis (RStudio and qgraph). Results: Boys were more motor competent than girls in all FMS skills, while girls were more active than boys during the weekend. Older children were less active than their younger peers during these days. MVPA is weak and differently related to each FMS, and the leap skill emerged with the highest betweenness and strength values in the network. Conclusions: For the assessed preschoolers, when considering BMI, age, and sex, the relationships between MVPA and FMS are inconsistent, and leap emerged as the main variable. During early childhood, these variables are connected as part of a complex system in which each skill has a dynamic role within the emerging pattern.

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Oliver Vogel, Daniel Niederer, Jan Wilke, Maike Steinmann, and Lutz Vogt

This study investigates methods of data gathering and management, along with the relationship of lifespan and older adults’ activity. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 47, 81.7 ± 3.6 years) completed the Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire. Current activity was assessed by use of accelerometers. The data were converted to the metabolic equivalent of task hours. Correlations between the main outcomes (metabolic equivalent of task/hour, Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire), as well as individual estimation errors for data adjustments, were computed. The accelerometer and Lifetime Leisure Physical Activity Questionnaire data for the last 12 months’ activity were associated (r = .31, p = .033). The average overestimation in the self-reported data was 176%. The adapted data on lifetime physical activity reveals correlations between older adults’ activity and the activity levels of three 15-year episodes (r = .354; r = .336; r = .323; each p < .05), as well as compliance with guidelines throughout life (Hotelling’s T 2 = 45–164; p ≤ .002). Our findings indicate a relationship between lifetime and older adults’ activity and provide further support for lifelong engagement in physical activity.