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Kim Tolentino, Tucker Readdy, and Johannes Raabe

Workaholism (i.e., working excessively and compulsively) is associated with negative physical, psychological, and social consequences. Researchers have previously examined antecedents of workaholism, but the experiences of sport coaches have not yet been investigated. This study explored (a) differences in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I coaches’ workaholism, as well as need satisfaction and frustration based on gender, coaching role, gender of athletes coached, age, and years of coaching experience; and (b) how coaches’ perceptions of their three basic psychological needs are associated with tendencies to work excessively and compulsively. A total of 873 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I coaches participated in the research. Data analyses revealed significant differences in participants’ workaholism as well as need satisfaction and frustration. Structural equation modeling indicated a significant relationship between reported levels of workaholism and perceptions of the three needs. Findings illustrate the importance of basic psychological needs in preventing coaches’ workaholism and maintain optimal functioning.

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Ping-Ho Chen, Su-Chen Fang, Szu-Ying Lee, Wan-Ling Lin, Shu-Feng Tsai, and Sheng-Miauh Huang

This study aims to describe the relationship between physical activity, suboptimal health status based on traditional Chinese medicine, and psychological health in older people in Taiwan. A total of 4,497 older individuals were selected from the Taiwan Biobank Research Database. Suboptimal health status was assessed using a body constitution questionnaire to measure yang deficiency, yin deficiency, and stasis. The results showed that older adults involved in physical activity had a lower likelihood of yang/yin deficiency and stasis constitutions than physically inactive people. Participants with yang deficiency or stasis constitutions had a higher likelihood of poor psychological health, whereas those with yin deficiency had a greater likelihood of depression. People involved in physical activity had a lower likelihood of depression than physically inactive people. Compared with male older adults, females had a lower percentage of physical activity habits, poorer body constitutions, and poorer psychological health.

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Erhan Seçer, İlknur Naz, Hilal Uzunlar, Gülşah Çallioğlu, Yusuf Emük, Melda Başer Seçer, and Hasan Öztin

This study aimed to examine the convergent validity and test–retest reliability of the Turkish version of the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS-TR). Eighty-one volunteer older adults were included in the study. Test–retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Correlation coefficients between YPAS-TR and Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), Short Form-36, and Short Physical Performance Battery were examined for convergent validity. Acceptable intraclass correlation coefficient values were reached for YPAS-TR energy expenditure, total physical activity time and summary, vigorous, leisurely walking, moving, standing, and sitting indices (intraclass correlation coefficient = .96–.99). There was a moderate correlation between energy expenditure and total physical activity time with PASE (leisure time activities), PASE (household activities), and PASE (total) (r = .478, r = .468, r = .570, r = .406, r = .490, r = .550, respectively, p < .001). Also, a weak correlation was found between summary and leisurely walking index with PASE (household activities), standing index with PASE (leisure time activities), and PASE (total) (r = .285, p = .010; r = .257, p = .021; r = .238, p = .033; r = .283, p = .010; respectively). The results of the study suggest that the YPAS-TR is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used to assess the physical activity patterns of Turkish older adults.

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Deirdre Lyons, Philip Clarke, and Robert C. Dempsey

Limited research into professional rugby union players’ experiences of seeking formal support for their mental health exists, despite comparable rates of mental health issues among elite rugby players with the general population. This qualitative study explored professional players’ actual experiences of accessing Rugby Players Ireland’s mental well-being service, via separate focus group discussions with professional players (n = 5) and player development managers (n = 4) who refer players into the service. An inductive reflexive thematic analysis identified three themes detailing players’ (a) journey to disclosure of their mental health difficulties, (b) their expectations and engagement with the well-being service, and (c) participants’ reflections on mental health experiences in a high-performance environment. Embedding mental health as a key component of player development in high-performance environments, improving mental health literacy, normalizing mental health experiences, and encouraging help-seeking would help promote player well-being and support holistic development alongside sporting performance.

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Ewan R. Williams, Chad R. Straight, Hannah K. Wilson, Robert C. Lynall, Chris M. Gregory, and Ellen M. Evans

Exercise training (EX) and weight loss (WL) improve lower extremity physical function (LEPF) in older overweight women; however, effects on rate of torque development (RTD) are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of WL + EX or WL alone on RTD, and relatedly LEPF, in overweight older women. Leg strength was assessed using isokinetic dynamometry, and RTD was calculated (RTD200 = RTD at 200 ms, RTDPeak = peak RTD, T2P = time to 1st peak). LEPF was determined via clinical functional tasks. Women (n = 44, 69.1 ± 3.6 years, 30.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2) completed a 6-month trial in EX + WL or WL groups with similar weight loss (−9.8 ± 4.2%, p > .95). EX + WL had greater improvements in (a) most LEPF tasks (p < .001) and (b) RTD200, compared with WL (36% vs. −16%, p = .031); no other RTD parameters differed. Changes in RTD parameters and LEPF were not related (all p > .05). RTD is responsive to EX but is not associated with LEPF in older women.

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Kerem Shuval, Mahmoud Qadan, David Leonard, Carolyn E. Barlow, Jeffrey Drope, Loretta DiPietro, Reid Oetjen, and Laura F. DeFina

Background: Public health measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic have led to disruptions in daily life, such as job loss and changes in activity. The present study examines the relationship between pandemic-related life events and disuse (prolonged sitting coupled with inactivity) among adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 4084 adults in Israel (September 2020). The primary independent variables were pandemic-related life events, such as job loss. The primary dependent variable was disuse as measured by the Rapid Assessment Disuse Index (RADI). The RADI was examined continuously and dichotomously as a low RADI score (<26: yes/no). Results: Linear regression indicated that experiencing a major life event during the pandemic was associated with lower RADI scores (−1.04; 95% confidence interval, −1.48 to −0.61). Similarly, logistic regression revealed that those experiencing a major life event had 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.34) times greater odds for low RADI scores in comparison to those not experiencing an event. Conclusions: Experiencing pandemic-related major life events was linked to less sitting time and increased activity levels among Israeli adults. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms explaining this relationship to facilitate the design and implementation of targeted interventions.

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Stephen Hunter, John C. Spence, Scott T. Leatherdale, and Valerie Carson

Background: Neighborhoods are one setting to promote children’s physical activity. This study examined associations between neighborhood features and children’s physical activity and whether season or socioeconomic status modified these associations. Methods: Parents (n = 641) of children aged 6–10 years completed the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale—Abbreviated. Walkability was objectively measured at 400, 800, and 1200 m around the centroid of participants’ postal codes. Children’s physical activity was measured via StepsCount pedometers and parental report. Regression analyses were performed with interaction terms for season and socioeconomic status. Multiple imputation was used primarily to triangulate the results for children with missing steps data (n = 192). Results: Higher perceived residential density and traffic hazards were significantly associated with lower squareroot transformed parental-reported physical activity and steps per day, respectively. Higher perceived aesthetics was associated with higher squareroot transformed parental-reported physical activity. Socioeconomic status modified 2 associations though they were not significant upon stratification. During winter months, better perceived infrastructure and safety for walking was associated with higher squareroot transformed parental-reported physical activity. No other significant associations emerged. Conclusion: Residential density, traffic hazards, and aesthetics are important for children’s physical activity. Few associations were modified by socioeconomic status or season. The need for objective and subjective measures of the neighborhood environment and children’s physical activity is apparent.

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Sylvia E. Badon, Assiamira Ferrara, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Lyndsay A. Avalos, and Monique M. Hedderson

Background: Understanding how sleep, sedentary behavior (SED), and physical activity (PA) (24-h movement profile) changes across pregnancy in individuals with prepregnancy overweight or obesity and how parity (previous births) impacts these changes can help inform interventions. Methods: In 155 participants, movement was measured using wrist-worn accelerometers, and sleep was self-reported in early (8–15 wk) and late (29–38 wk) pregnancy. The 24-hour movement profiles were analyzed using compositional analyses. Results: Nulliparous participants (no previous births) spent 33.95%, 38.14%, 25.32%, and 2.58% of the 24-hour day in early pregnancy in sleep, SED, light-intensity PA, and moderate/vigorous-intensity PA, respectively. Multiparous participants (≥1 previous birth) spent 2.50 percentage points less in SED (mean log-ratio difference = −0.068; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.129 to −0.009) and 2.73 percentage points more in light-intensity PA (mean log-ratio difference = 0.102; 95% CI, 0.035 to 0.180). From early to late pregnancy, participants decreased the proportion of the 24-hour day spent asleep by 1.67 percentage points (mean log-ratio difference = −0.050; 95% CI, −0.092 to −0.011) and increased light-intensity PA by 1.56 percentage points (mean log-ratio difference = 0.057; 95% CI, 0.003 to 0.108), with no change in other behaviors. Conclusions: Nulliparous and multiparous individuals with prepregnancy overweight or obesity both had high levels of SED, with no change across pregnancy, and may require interventions to reduce  SED.

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Ransimala Nayakarathna, Nimesh B. Patel, Cheryl Currie, Guy Faulkner, Negin A. Riazi, Mark S. Tremblay, François Trudeau, and Richard Larouche

Background: Previous research shows that children from ethnic minority groups spend less time outdoors. Using data collected in 3 regions of Canada, we investigated the correlates of outdoor time among schoolchildren who spoke a nonofficial language at home. Methods: A total of 1699 children were recruited from 37 schools stratified by area-level socioeconomic status and type of urbanization. Among these, 478 spoke a nonofficial language at home. Children’s outdoor time and data on potential correlates were collected via questionnaires. Gender-stratified linear multiple regression models examined the correlates of outdoor time while controlling for age and sampling variables. Results: In boys, higher independent mobility, higher outdoor air temperature, mobile phone ownership, having older parents, and parents who biked to work were associated with more outdoor time. Boys living in suburban (vs urban) areas spent less time outdoors. The association between independent mobility and outdoor time became weaker with increasing age for boys. In girls, lower parental education and greater parental concerns about neighborhood safety and social cohesion were associated with less outdoor time. Conclusions: Correlates of outdoor time differ by gender and span the social ecological model underscoring the need for gender-sensitized interventions targeted at individual, family, social, and physical environmental correlates to increase outdoor time.