Although dance interventions may have lots of advantages in improving frailty, there are few papers focusing on the effects such interventions have on frail older adults living in the community setting. This study investigates whether a dance intervention can improve the level of frailty among Chinese older adults living in the community setting. The dance intervention was done five times a week for 16 weeks. Participants in the control group maintained their normal daily activities. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. Mixed models were used to test for the effects on frailty, depression, short physical performance battery, and grip strength between the groups over time. The level of frailty (p < .05) and depression (p < .001) decreased, and short physical performance battery (p < .001) increased over time in the dance group compared with the control group. A dance intervention lasting 16 weeks showed improved frailty, depression, and physical performance among Chinese older adults living in the community setting.
Xiaohong Zhang, Cees Peter van der Schans, Yanhui Liu, Wilhelmus Petrus Krijnen, and Johannes Simon Maria Hobbelen
Mark Jankowski, Sarah Partington, Nick Heather, and Elizabeth Partington
The purpose of this study was to provide new knowledge about the temporal and contextual aspects of the alcohol–sport relationship. Eight U.K. student-athletes completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in their final year at university, 18 months, and 30 months after graduation. They also completed semistructured interviews about their drinking motives, behaviors, and life circumstances. Results showed that participants reduced their alcohol consumption after leaving university, but despite the onset of some adult responsibilities, most were still drinking at hazardous levels. After university, drinking took place with old friends, new colleagues, and new sporting teammates. At all time points, social drinking motives were the most prevalent. Findings demonstrate a relationship between alcohol and sport that is cemented at university but continues beyond it. Targeted interventions to reduce the role of alcohol in the social experience of sport are needed to support long-term athlete health.
Lindsay S. Nagamatsu and Patricia C. Heyn
This conceptual article focuses on the curriculum disalignment issue that seems to be a contributor to the marginalization of K–12 physical education. Through a brief historical review of events, especially the 1991 Critical Crossroads conference, the article explores and explains reasons that the future of K–12 physical education should rely on developing health-centered, concept-based curricula consistent with kinesiology science. In a major section, the article documents a 20-year effort and findings of curriculum intervention research in elementary, middle, and high schools to advocate and deliberate the need for a curriculum reform that should center on aligning physical education with kinesiology science. Implications of the kinesiology–physical education curriculum alignment to student learning are emphasized, and a paradigm change perspective to curriculum reform is discussed as a path to revitalize K–12 physical education.
Sedigheh Salami, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Clarice Martins, Louise L. Hardy, Amir Shams, and Parvaneh Shamsipour Dehkordi
Purpose: To examine the factor structure and measurement invariance of the Körperkoordinations Test Für Kinder (KTK) and covariates of motor competence in a sample of Iranian children aged 5–14 years. Methods: Participants were children aged 5–14 years (N = 432, 61% boys). Age, sex, and body mass index were collected. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to investigate the factorial structure of KTK and multigroup CFA carried out to test measurement invariance across sexes and age groups. In addition, we calculated a model with covariates to identify the association between KTK items with age, sex, and body mass index z score. Results: CFA supported the construct validity of a one-factor model with an appropriate fit indices that the four subtests loaded on the same factor namely motor competence. Furthermore, according to the magnitude of changes in root mean square error of approximation and comparative fit index between nested models, the assumption of KTK measurement invariance across age-groups and sex were valid. Finally, adequate fit indices were found for the multigroup CFA path model of KTK with the covariates sex, age, and body mass index z score. Conclusion: The KTK is a valid, reliable, and valuable instrument for assessing motor competence of Iranian children and adolescents.
Dirk Krombholz, Peter Leinen, Thomas Muehlbauer, and Stefan Panzer
Poor single-leg balance performance is associated with an increased risk of sustaining lower limb injuries in team sports. However, it is unclear whether this relationship is modified by the level of training experience (years of training experience). The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether soccer players’ single-leg balance performance is related to lower limb injuries in noncontact situations with different levels of training experience. Subelite young male soccer players performed the Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test with the dominant and the nondominant leg at the beginning of the preseason. Due to COVID-19 rules, the occurrence of lower limb injuries during the second half of the competitive season was documented. The odds of injury were calculated based on a previously reported Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test cut-off score for side-to-side anterior reach difference (≥4 cm). Twelve soccer players sustained a lower leg injury in noncontact situations. Only four of them had an anterior reach difference equal to or above the cut-off score. Soccer training experience has no significant influence on the association between Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test anterior reach asymmetry and noncontact lower limb injury in young male players.
Sarah C. Galway, Meghan H.D. Laird, Matthieu Dagenais, and Kimberley L. Gammage
Online exercise programming has surged in popularity; however, little is known about older adults’ perceptions and experiences of online exercise. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine older adults’ (aged 59–82 years) experiences and perceptions of an online exercise program during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nineteen individuals (individuals who used the online exercise program and those who did not) completed a semistructured interview. Three main themes were generated from the data using reflexive thematic analysis: (a) can online exercise really work for older adults? (b) technology attitudes and experiences influence online participation, and (c) barriers and advantages of the online exercise program and the home environment. Most participants who took part were able to overcome initial barriers through technical support and experience. Our findings highlight ways to promote advantages and address barriers of online exercise for older adults and emphasize the importance of fostering social experiences and training online exercise instructors.
Brad McKay, Mariane F.B. Bacelar, and Michael J. Carter
Recent metascience suggests that motor behavior research may be underpowered, on average. Researchers can perform a priori power analyses to ensure adequately powered studies. However, there are common pitfalls that can result in underestimating the required sample size for a given design and effect size of interest. Critical evaluation of power analyses requires successful analysis reproduction, which is conditional on the reporting of sufficient information. Here, we attempted to reproduce every power analysis reported in articles (k = 84/635) in three motor behavior journals between January 2019 and June 2021. We reproduced 7% of analyses using the reported information, which increased to 43% when we assumed plausible values for missing parameters. Among studies that reported sufficient information to evaluate, 63% reported using the same statistical test in the power analysis as in the study itself, and in 77%, the test addressed at least one of the identified hypotheses. Overall, power analyses were not commonly reported with sufficient information to ensure reproducibility. A nontrivial number of power analyses were also affected by common pitfalls. There is substantial opportunity to address the issue of underpowered research in motor behavior by increasing adoption of power analyses and ensuring reproducible reporting practices.