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Megan M. Byrd, Anthony P. Kontos, Shawn R. Eagle, and Samuel Zizzi

This study used an exploratory mixed-method sequential design to examine anger, impulsivity, and anxiety following sport-related concussions (SRC). Ten college athletes (M = 20.10 years, SD = 2.92) completed four measures 1–10 days postconcussion (Visit 1) and 11–20 days postconcussion (Visit 2). At return to play or 30 days postconcussion, the athletes completed a semistructured interview (follow-up) to assess their lived experiences of the emotional sequelae of concussions. All participants indicated experiencing some level of anxiety at Visit 1, with half the participants scoring above the measure’s threshold for probable clinical diagnosis of anxiety. The results found a significant decrease in symptoms and anxiety at Visit 2. Inductive coding revealed frustration, irritability, impulsive behavior, and fear of the unknown as themes pertaining to athletes’ experiences. The findings highlight the need for sports medicine and sport psychology professionals to provide athletes with information to normalize their emotional responses during recovery.

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Bridget Coyle-Asbil, Hannah J. Coyle-Asbil, David W.L. Ma, Jess Haines, and Lori Ann Vallis

Sleep is vital for healthy development of young children; however, it is not understood how the quality and quantity vary between the weekends and weekdays (WE–WD). Research focused on older children has demonstrated that there is significant WE–WD variability and that this is associated with adiposity. It is unclear how this is experienced among preschoolers. This study explored: (a) the accuracy of WE–WD sleep as reported in parental logbooks compared with accelerometers; (b) the difference between WE and WD total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and timing, as assessed by accelerometers; and (c) the association between the variability of these metrics and adiposity. Eighty-seven preschoolers (M = 46; 4.48 ± 0.89 years) wore an accelerometer on their right hip for 7 days. Parents were given logbooks to track “lights out” times (sleep onset) and out of bed time (sleep offset). Compared with accelerometers, parental logbook reports indicated earlier sleep onset and later sleep offset times on both WEs and WDs. Accelerometer-derived total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and onset/offset were not significantly different on the WEs and WDs; however, a sex effect was observed, with males going to bed and waking up earlier than females. Correlation analyses revealed that variability of sleep onset times throughout the week was positively correlated with percentage of fat mass in children. Results suggest that variability of sleep onset may be associated with increased adiposity in preschool children. Additional research with larger and more socioeconomically and racially diverse samples is needed to confirm these findings.

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Golnoush Mehrabani, Douglas P. Gross, Saeideh Aminian, and Patricia J. Manns

Walking is the most common and preferred way for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) to be active. Consumer-grade wearable activity monitors may be used as a tool to assist people with MS to track their walking by counting the number of steps. The authors evaluated the validity of Fitbit One activity tracker in individuals with MS by comparing step counts measured over a 7-day period against ActivPAL3TM (AP). Twenty-five ambulatory adults with MS with an average age 51.7 (10.2) years and gait speed 0.98 (0.47) m/s, median Expanded Disability Status Scale 5.5 (2.5–6.5), and 15 years post-MS diagnosis wore Fitbit One (using both waist and ankle placement) and AP for 7 consecutive days. Validity of Fitbit One for measuring step counts against AP was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Bland–Altman plots, and t tests. Regardless of wearing location (waist or ankle), there was good agreement between steps recorded by Fitbit One and AP (ICC: .86 [.82, .90]). The ankle-worn Fitbit measured steps more accurately (ICC: .91 [.81, .95]) than the waist-worn Fitbit (ICC: .81 [.62, .85]) especially in individuals (n = 12) who walked slowly (gait speed = 0.74 m/s). Fitbit One as a user-friendly, inexpensive, consumer-grade activity tracker can accurately record steps in persons with MS in a free-living environment.

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Danylo F. Cabral, Vinicius S. Santos, Oceano T.T. Pereira, Maria J. Silva, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Tatjana Rundek, David A. Loewenstein, Neva Kirk-Sanchez, Augusto C.A. Oliveira, and Joyce Gomes-Osman

In this randomized controlled pilot trial, the authors explored the feasibility, technology compliance, and preliminary efficacy of the Education for Action (EDU-ACT), a multimodal intervention combining evidence-based strategies of physical activity (PA) education and coaching in PA levels over 4 weeks between EDU-ACT and control groups. The authors also assessed pre–post changes in neurocognitive function, functional mobility and dual-task performance, sleep and quality of life. Thirty-two sedentary older adults with memory complaints (age = 66 ± 5.3) completed the study (EDU-ACT = 18 and control = 14). The EDU-ACT adherence rate was 95%, and compliance of daily PA reporting was, on average, 22.7 days (94.6%). The EDU-ACT group demonstrated a significantly greater number of steps, processing speed, and dual-task performance when compared with controls (p < .05). In this study, a multimodal, evidence-based, low-cost intervention was feasible, well-accepted, with high adherence and compliance rates, and effective at promoting clinically meaningful increases in PA, for at least 1 month postintervention, in older adults with memory complaints.

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Anoek M. Adank, Dave H.H. Van Kann, Teun Remmers, Stef P.J. Kremers, and Steven B. Vos

Background: This study examined longitudinal associations of motor competence (MC) and physical activity (PA) enjoyment with moderate to vigorous PA and sedentary behavior among boys and girls aged 10–12 years old. In addition, this study explored the predictive strength of satisfaction of basic psychological needs in physical education (PE) and PA enjoyment. Methods: At 3 time points (baseline, +1 y, and +2 y), PA levels, MC, PA enjoyment, satisfaction of basic psychological needs in PE and height and weight of 371 children were measured. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures linear mixed model analyses stratified for gender and adjusted for relevant covariates. Results: Sedentary behavior decreased over time and was significantly predicted by PA enjoyment in boys and by PA enjoyment and MC in girls. Boys’ moderate to vigorous PA decreased over time and was predicted by MC, whereas girls’ moderate to vigorous PA remained low, yet stable over time and was predicted by PA enjoyment and MC. Furthermore, children’s need for competence and teacher relatedness (girls only) during PE significantly predicted PA enjoyment. Conclusions: Children need sufficient and well-designed opportunities to improve their MC and PA enjoyment. PE may be pivotal in advancing PA enjoyment, indicating that PE could have more beneficial effects on PA levels in children, especially in girls.

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Andrea Ramirez Varela, Robert Sallis, Alex V. Rowlands, and James F. Sallis

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Michael Pratt, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III, Bojana Klepac Pogrmilovic, Željko Pedišić, and James F. Sallis

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Eduarda Cristina da Costa Silva, Arthur Oliveira Barbosa, Juliana Maria da Penha Freire Silva, and José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

Context: This study analyzed whether self-efficacy (SE) and perceived environmental characteristics (EC) are determinants of the decline in physical activity (PA) time in adolescents. Methods: This used longitudinal observational approach, with 4 years of data collection, involving 355 adolescents (57.7% girls and 42.3% boys), average age of 11.8 years (0.1 y), from João Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. SE and EC were measured by scales and PA by a questionnaire. Ordinal logistic regression was used to associate SE and EC with a decline in PA. Results: There was a linear trend toward a decrease in average PA duration (58.3 [13.7] min/wk/y) and a rise in average access to places for PA (point per year) (0.6 [0.1]), urban safety (0.2 [0.1]), and traffic safety scores (0.5 [0.1]). The results of multivariable analysis indicated that SE and EC were not associated with the decline in PA. Conclusion: There was a decline in PA time, and SE and perceived EC were not determinants of this decline.

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Mauro F.F. Mediano, Jerome L. Fleg, Amal A. Wanigatunga, Tatiana R. Gonçalves, Pablo Martinez-Amezcua, Moyses Szklo, Eleanor M. Simonsick, Luigi Ferrucci, and Jennifer A. Schrack

Although physical activity (PA) is an important determinant of exercise capacity, the association between these constructs is modest. The authors investigated the associations of self-reported and objectively measured PA with maximal and submaximal tests of exercise capacity. Participants aged ≥40 years (N = 413; 49.6% female) completed a PA questionnaire, wore a uniaxial accelerometer (5.2 ± 1.1 days), and performed maximal (cardiopulmonary exercise test [CPET]) and submaximal (long-distance corridor walk) tests with indirect calorimetry (oxygen consumption, V˙O2). Linear regression models were fitted to assess the variation in exercise capacity explained (partial eta squared, η2) by PA variables. Accelerometer-measured vigorous (η2 = 22% female; η2 = 16% male) and total PA (η2 = 17% female; η2 = 13% male) explained the most variance in CPET V˙O2 (p < .001). All η2 values were lower for long-distance corridor walk V˙O22 ≤ 11%). Age contributed more to CPET V˙O2 than any PA variable in males (η2 = 32%), but not in females (η2 = 19%). Vigorous and total PA play important roles in CPET V˙O2 in mid to late life.