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Prefrontal Cortex Brain Activation During Texting and Walking: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Feasibility Study

Tal Krasovsky, Rawda Madi, Eyal Fruchter, Elias Jahjah, and Roee Holtzer

Texting while walking is an increasingly common, potentially dangerous task but its functional brain correlates have yet to be reported. Therefore, we evaluated prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation patterns during single- and dual-task texting and walking in healthy adults. Thirteen participants (29–49 years) walked under single- and dual-task conditions involving mobile phone texting or a serial-7s subtraction task, while measuring PFC activation (functional near-infrared spectroscopy) and behavioral task performance (inertial sensors, mobile application). Head lowering during texting increased PFC activation. Texting further increased PFC activation, and decreased gait performance similarly to serial-7 subtraction. Our results support the key role of executive control in texting while walking.

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Range of Motion Remains Constant as Movement Rate Decreases During a Repetitive High-Speed Knee Flexion–Extension Task

José Pedro Correia, João R. Vaz, Erik Witvrouw, and Sandro R. Freitas

Maintaining the range of motion in repetitive movement tasks is a crucial point since it directly influences the movement rate. Ensuring the movement amplitude can be reliably maintained when motor function is assessed by measuring the maximum movement rate is therefore a key consideration. However, the performed range of motion during such tasks is often not reported. This study aimed to determine whether individuals are able to maintain an intended range of motion during a knee flexion/extension maximum movement rate task in the absence of tactile and visual feedback. Twelve healthy male individuals performed knee flexion/extension at maximum speed for eight 10-s blocks in a 45° arc between 45° and 90°. The range of motion was monitored using a marker system and the movement rate was measured. The performed range of motion was not significantly different from the 45° arc during the task despite a 13.47% decrease in movement rate from the start to the end of the task. Nevertheless, there was only anecdotal evidence of no difference from 45° in most blocks, while on the second and seventh blocks, there was anecdotal evidence of differences in the Bayesian one-sample test. There was also no significant shift in the maximum flexion/extension angles throughout the task. Healthy male individuals were thus able to perform a consistent average predefined knee range of motion in a maximum movement rate task despite decreases in movement rate. This was achieved without constraint-inducing devices during the task, using only basic equipment and verbal feedback.

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Reaching Movements With Limb-Based Visual Feedback

Fatemeh Zahed and Max Berniker

Reaches in experimental settings are commonly found to be straight. This straightness is robust to physical, but not visual, perturbations. Here, we question whether typical visual feedback contributes to this finding by implicitly promoting straight movements. To do so, we replaced the conventional feedback depicting the hand’s location with feedback depicting the limb’s orientation. Reaching movements with three different visual feedback conditions were examined. In the final condition, the subject’s arm was depicted as two rotating links, and targets were depicted as two links indicating a desired arm posture. We found that by replacing standard cursor feedback, reaches became curved and arched to the target. Our findings further demonstrate that depicted feedback influences movements, and feedback depicting the limb, in particular, may elicit curved reaches.

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Examining the Mechanisms of Internal and External Focus of Attention With Donders’ Subtractive Method

Jarrod Blinch, John R. Harry, Melanie A. Hart, and Denis Cousineau

The goal of the current study was to measure the processing demands on the stages of information processing with internal and external foci of attention. Participants completed simple and two-choice reaction time tasks with internal and external foci of attention. Donders’ subtraction method was used to isolate the cumulative duration of stages unique to simple and choice reaction time tasks. Mean reaction time was comparable with internal and external foci of attention in simple and two-choice reaction time tasks. These results suggest that processing demands were comparable with internal and external foci of attention. We hypothesize that there was not a processing advantage for an external focus in simple reaction time because the required movements had low movement complexity.

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Young Swimmers’ Classification Based on Performance and Biomechanical Determinants: Determining Similarities Through Cluster Analysis

Jorge E. Morais, Tiago M. Barbosa, Henrique P. Neiva, Mario C. Marques, and Daniel A. Marinho

The aim of this study was to classify and identify young swimmers’ performance, and biomechanical determinant factors, and understand if both sexes can be clustered together. Thirty-eight swimmers of national level (22 boys: 15.92 ± 0.75 years and 16 girls: 14.99 ± 1.06 years) were assessed. Performance (swim speed at front crawl stroke) and a set of kinematic, efficiency, kinetic, and hydrodynamic variables were measured. Variables related to kinetics and efficiency (p < .001) were the ones that better discriminated the clusters. All three clusters included girls. Based on the interaction of these determinant factors, there are girls who can train together with boys. These findings indicate that not understanding the importance of the interplay between such determinants may lead to performance suppression in girls.

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Event-Related Potentials Analysis of the Effects of Discontinuous Short-Term Fine Motor Imagery on Motor Execution

ShiYao Wu and Li Sui

In this study, event-related potentials and neurobehavioral measurements were used to investigate the effects of discontinuous short-term fine motor imagery (MI), a paradigm of finger sequential MI training interspersed with no-MI that occurs within 1 hr, on fine finger motor execution. The event-related potentials revealed that there were significant differences in the P300 between the fine MI training and the no-MI training. There were also significant changes in the P200 between fine motor execution of familiar tasks after MI training and fine motor execution of unfamiliar tasks without MI training. Neurobehavioral data revealed that the fine MI enhanced fine motor execution. These findings may suggest that discontinuous short-term fine MI could be useful in improving fine motor skills.

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Obesity Is Associated With Gait Alterations and Gait Asymmetry in Older Adults

Hao Meng and Stacey L. Gorniak

Objectives: The prevalence of obesity (OB) has increased in the older adult (OA) population. However, it is not quite clear whether OB exaggerates gait instability and leads to a higher risk of falls in OAs. The first goal of this study was to investigate whether OB is associated with gait alterations and gait asymmetry in OAs. The second goal of this study was to examine relationships between various OB measures with gait measures and gait symmetry measures in OAs. Methods: A total of 30 OAs were included and categorized according to their body mass index (BMI) values into groups of persons with normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), and OB. Participants were required to complete an anthropometric assessment, a body composition assessment, and overground walking tests. Results: The group with OB had shorter swing phase, longer stance phase, and shorter single support phase than the NW group. Increased body weight, BMI, visceral adipose tissue mass, and android fat had correlations with shorter swing phase, longer stance phase, and shorter single support phase. Increased body weight and BMI had significantly positive correlations with symmetry index of knee range of motion. Conclusions: OB may impair gait automation capacity in OAs. Both body weight and BMI remain good measures in terms of establishing correlations with gait stability in OAs. However, the amount of fat mass surrounding the abdomen could be vital to interpreting the alterations in the gait of OAs with obesity.

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The Effects of Number and Separation of Support Lines on the Size, Velocity, and Smoothness of Handwriting

Ivonne H.F. Duiser, Annick Ledebt, John van der Kamp, and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh

We examined the effects of number of and separation between support lines on handwriting characteristics of primary school students with satisfactory and unsatisfactory handwriting. Students (mean age 7.9 years) copied a text on paper with a baseline and with two or four support lines with a separation of 3 or 4 mm between the central lines. Handwriting size, velocity, and smoothness were determined for the four conditions relative to baseline. Children with unsatisfactory handwriting wrote larger and had more lifts during baseline condition. Writing between support lines, especially with small separation, immediately reduced the size of handwriting, but also adversely affected velocity and smoothness. Future research is needed to assess long-term effects.

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Volume 26 (2022): Issue 2 (Apr 2022)

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Cognitive and Physical Effects of Warm-Up on Young Soccer Players

Francisco Tomás González-Fernández, Hugo Sarmento, Sixto González-Víllora, Juan Carlos Pastor-Vicedo, Luis Manuel Martínez-Aranda, and Filipe Manuel Clemente

This study analyzed the effects of with (WC) or without conducting a warm up on youth soccer players immediately before performing physical and cognitive tests. Fourteen youth soccer player (age 11.64 ± 0.50) participated in a counterbalanced cross-sectional study in which three conditions were tested: (a) basal lineal condition; (b) WC (immediately before the physical and cognitive tests); and (c) without WC (passive resting for 15 min between the warm-up and physical and cognitive tests). A 30-m sprint test, countermovement jump, and psychomotor vigilance task were also applied. The WC revealed significant improvements in countermovement jump (p < .05), 30-m sprint test performance (p < .05), and reaction time in psychomotor vigilance task (p < .05) in comparison to basal lineal condition and without WC. A 15-min rest after a warm-up has a meaningfully decremental effect on the physical and cognitive readiness of youth soccer players, in comparison with when they warm-up immediately before the demands are imposed.